IASO Awards New Investigator Award AS:01 Liver fat accumulation in response to overfeeding with a high fat diet: a comparison between South Asian and caucasian men Wulan, S*; Schrauwen-Hinderling, V; Westerterp, K; Plasqui, G Maastricht University Background: South Asians were reported to have a higher liver fat accumulation than Caucasians. Aim: To compare the increase in liver fat, in response to overfeeding with a high fat diet, between South Asian and Caucasian men matched for body fat%. Methods: Ten South Asian men (BMI 23 ± 3 kg/m2) were matched for body fat% with 10 Caucasian men (BMI 27 ± 4 kg/m2), aged 20–40 y. A weight maintenance diet was given for 3 days based on the subject’s energy requirement, calculated from body composition (measured by hydrodensitometry and deuterium dilution) and physical activity (accelerometer). Liver fat was measured before and after 4 days of overfeeding (50% excess of energy needs) with a high fat diet (60% energy from fat) using 1H-MRS. Abdominal fat area was measured using MRI. Results: South Asians had a similar body fat% (P = 0.58) at a lower BMI (P = 0.04) than Caucasians. Baseline liver fat did not differ between ethnicities (P = 0.48) and was associated with visceral fat area (P = 0.035, R = 0.70) but not with ethnicity (P = 0.18). Overfeeding significantly increased liver fat (P = 0.01) but the increase did not differ between ethnicities (P = 0.47). Visceral fat area/VAT did not differ between ethnicities (P = 0.32), however as a percentage of the total abdominal fat area, VAT was higher in South Asians (P = 0.003). Conclusion: Despite a relatively higher percentage of VAT, liver fat increased similarly in South Asian and Caucasian men in response to overfeeding with a high fat diet.

AS:02 E4orf1: A novel protein reproducibly improves glycemic control in high-fat fed mice Na, H*; Hegde, V; Dubuisson, O; Dhurandhar, N Pennington Biomedical Research Center Weight loss improves obesity-related insulin resistance and impaired glycemic control. However, considering the low feasibility of longterm weight loss and maintenance, a therapeutic agent that improves glycemic control independent of weight loss or insulin action, would be highly desirable. In rodent models, human adenovirus Ad36 improves glycemic control without weight loss, by insulinindependently up-regulating the Ras/AKT/Glut4 signaling. While this action of Ad36 is conceptually important, its practical therapeutic application depends on identifying the specific viral protein responsible. We determined the effect of E4orf1 gene of Ad36 on glycemic control in-vivo. In a series of experiments, 8–9 wk old male C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat diet(HFD, 60% kcal) were injected with a retrovirus plasmid expressing E4orf1(E4), or a null vector(CON). Glycemic control, determined by glucose tolerance test, deteriorated for the CON- group, but improved for the E4-group

© 2014 The Authors obesity reviews © 2014 International Association for the Study of Obesity

in one-wk post-inoculation(p < 0.05). Re-inoculation of respective groups boosted the improvement in glycemic control in E4 vs CON(p < 0.006) one-wk later. The difference faded two-wks later. At that time, a second booster injection again significantly improved glycemic control in the E4 group, vs CON. Thus, E4orf1 dose reproducibly improves HFD-induced hyperglycemia. Glycemic response to exogenous insulin was not different between the two groups, suggesting an insulin-independent action of E4orf1. E4group significantly up-regulated adiponectin and Ras/AKT/Glut4 signaling. Collectively, E4orf1 offers a highly novel template to improve glycemic control independent of insulin resistance or weight loss. This should particularly supplement the efforts of those who have increased obesity-related metabolic risk, but struggle to lose weight in an obesogenic environment.

AS:03 FoodSwitch: a smartphone application to help consumers make healthier food choices Dunford, E*1; Trevena, H1; Ng, T2; Goodsell, C2; Webster, J2; Neal, B2 1 The George Institute for Global Health; 2Xyris Software Background and objectives: Existing front-of-pack labels (FOPL) can be difficult for consumers to understand. The FoodSwitch smartphone application was developed to show nutrient information for foods in an easy-to-understand format and to suggest similar healthier products. Design: A database with nutrient data for 40,000 Australian packaged foods was created. Foods were put into one of >850 categories, and assigned traffic light colours indicating levels of fat, saturated fat, sugar and salt based on UK Food Standards Agency guidelines. Nutrient profiling criteria was used to calculate which items appeared as healthier choices. Crowd-sourcing was used to engage consumers in the process. Outcomes: When the barcode of a food is scanned, FoodSwitch displays the traffic lights for fat, saturated fat, sugar and salt, and a list of healthier items is shown. The app has been downloaded by >400,000 users, had >300 media clippings, was launched in NZ and is being adapted for the UK, India and China. Crowd-sourcing resulted in 6,000 extra products added to the database in the first week. Photos for >300 products are sent in by users weekly. A version for hypertensives, SaltSwitch, has now also been released and one for those with Coeliac Disease, GlutenSwitch. Conclusions: In the absence of consistent FOPL, FoodSwitch offers consumers a novel way to easily see whether or not the foods they buy are healthy, and offers a list of healthier similar products they can select.

AS:04 Effects of gastric bypass surgery on overweight patients with type 2 diabetes Cai, M*1; Gao, H2; Speakman, J2 Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences; 2Department Of General Surgery, The General Hospital of Chinese People’s Armed Police Forces


Bariatric surgery is the only available method to treat obesity with prolonged success. Gastric bypass is one of the most commonly

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used procedures. Recent studies have shown gastric bypass leads to a dramatic improvement in glucose homeostasis before there has been significant weight loss in obese patients. However, the effect of this surgery on overweight patients is still nuclear. In this study, we assessed the effect of gastric bypass surgery on the health of type 2 diabetes patients who were overweight (25 < BMI < 30) for up to 6 months post-surgery. The evaluations included measurements of body composition, glucose homeostasis, physical activity, cardiovascular and respiratory function. We found that body weight decreased significantly post operation 1 month (p = 0.001), 3 months (p = 0.001) and 6 months (p = 0.030); Body weight reduced 6.03 ¡À 4.75 kg after surgery 6 months. Adiposity was also reduced significantly post operation 1 month (p = 0.003), 3 months (p = 0.001) and 6 months (p = 0.033). Adiposity was reduced 5.23 ¡À 2.77 kg after surgery 6 months. There was however no significant increase in glucose tolerance. In addition, we found no significant changes in the levels of physical activity, forced vital capacity, and reactive hyperemia index. In conclusion, gastric bypass has a positive effect on weight loss in overweight diabetic patients but contrasting the effect on obese patients by 6 months there had been little improvement in other aspects of their health.

AS:05 Satiety control by peptides: different patterns of ghrelin, insulin, CCK, GLP-1 and PYY but the same suppression of appetite Gibbons, C*1; Finlayson, G2; Caudwell, P2; Webb, D3; Hellstrom, P3; Naslund, E4; Blundell, J2 1 Institute of Psychological Sciences; 2University of Leeds; 3 Uppsala University; 4Karolinska Institutet Introduction The main function of gastrointestinal peptides is to organise the intestinal response to different macronutrients ingested. Has the role of these peptides in satiety been overestimated? We compared responses of ghrelin, insulin, CCK, GLP-1 and PYY with profiles of hunger/fullness and ad libitum eating behaviour after consumption of normal iso-energetic meals varying in fat content, using novel electronic data capture technology and a three-phase analysis of satiety. Methods Overweight/obese participants were studied (Age:46 y;BMI:29.8 kg/m2). Peptides and subjective appetite were measured before and periodically for 180 min after consuming high fat (HF–>50% fat) or high carbohydrate (HCHO- < 3% fat) meals of equal palatability, energy and weight (590 kcal;685 g;). Profiles were analysed during early-(0–60 min), mid-(60–180 min) and late-(180 min) satiety. Ad-libitum eating was also measured. Results The overall pattern of peptide release was quite different after the two meals indicating selectivity in response to macronutrients – insulin release was higher after HCHO (F(1,15) = 32.688, p < 0.001), but CCK, GLP-1 and PYY responded more to HF (F(1,15) = 11.178,p < 0.01; F(1,15) = 5.099 and F(1,14) = 5.226, p < 0.05); ghrelin was the same after both meals (F(1,12) = 0.658, p = 0.433). Profiles of hunger and fullness were similar and ad libitum energy intake did not differ after the two meals (p>0.05). Ghrelin and GLP-1, but not CCK or PYY showed individual relationships with appetite measures during certain phases of satiety. Conclusions This outcome demonstrated that the same degree of satiety can be mediated by distinctly different peptide profiles implying that no single peptide can be regarded as the sole biomarker of satiety. This has implications for understanding the physiological basis of satiety.

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obesity reviews

Symposium Session: Emerging issues for obesity in the Asia-Oceania region AS:06 Circadian variation of gastric vagal afferent satiety signals are abolished by diet induced obesity Kentish, S*; O’Donnell, T; Kennaway, D; Wittert, G; Page, A University of Adelaide Co-ordination of food intake with the light/dark cycle is vital for metabolic health. Circadian misalignment increases the risk of obesity in part by a mechanism that involves food intake. We have shown that the cell bodies of gastric vagal afferents (GVAs) express clock genes and the mechanosensitivity of GVAs oscillates throughout the light/dark cycle, independent of food intake and light exposure (Appetite 2012;59(S1):E29). Even under controlled photo periods diet-induced obese (DIO) rats exhibit increased daytime feeding. We therefore determined the effect of DIO on circadian variation in GVA function and clock gene expression. Ex-vivo GVA recordings were taken at 6 h intervals starting at 06:00 (lights on) from 20 wk old female mice fed a standard (SLD; 12% kJ from fat) or high fat (HFD; 60% kJ from fat) diet (N = 12/diet) for 12 wks. Nodose ganglia were collected for quantification of Per1&2, Bmal1 and Nr1d1 clock gene mRNA by QRT-PCR. SLD mice showed circadian variation in GVA mechanosensitivity (peak = 12:00; nadir = 00:00) inversely proportional to gastric content. In HFD mice there was a total ablation of circadian variation in both GVA mechanosensitivity and gastric content. Nr1d1 mRNA peaked at 18:00 in SLD mice compared to 12:00 in HFD mice, but there were no differences in the other clock genes. In conclusion, DIO abrogates gastric mechanisms regulating circadian variation in food intake increasing the risk not only of obesity but cardio-metabolic disorders and malignancy.

AS:07 Curvilinear associations of irregular sleep patterns with glycemic control in type 2 diabetes – results from the hong kong diabetes registry Zhang, J* The Chinese University of Hong Kong There is emerging evidence suggesting a close relationship between sleep patterns and metabolism. However, the association between sleep patterns and glycemic control in diabetic populations is under-explored. We aimed to examine the associations of sleep patterns with glycemic control in type 2 diabetic (T2DM) patients. A consecutive cohort of T2DM patients from Hong Kong Diabetes Registry with well-documented clinical and biochemical characteristics including glycemic control indicators (glycated hemoglobin and fasting plasma glucose) were assessed for their sleep patterns and problems using validated questionnaires. Several important variables related to sleep patterns (including sleep duration, chronotype, and social jetlag) were created according to standardized methods for the analyses of their associations with glycemic control. A total of 2,556 Chinese T2DM patients with valid weekdays and weekends sleep parameters were analyzed. A U-shaped relationship of sleep duration during weekdays and social jetlag with fasting glucose were found in both univariate analyses and multivariate analyses (quadratic p = 0.021 and p = 0.005, respectively) after adjustment for socio-demographic and clinical correlates. There was a significant U-shaped association between fasting glucose and chronotype (p = 0.002). Our findings suggested that

© 2014 The Authors obesity reviews © 2014 International Association for the Study of Obesity

obesity reviews

both sleep duration and circadian rhythms are closely associated with glycemic control in T2DM patients. We have confirmed that two novel risk factors related to sleep patterns (chronotype and social jetlag) may contribute to poor glycemic control in T2DM patients.

AS:08 Association between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of adiponectin (ADIPOQ) gene with obesity risk in Malay children Teh, C*1; Chong, P2; Nurul Adibah, N1; Poh, B2; Rahman, J1; Wan Zurinah, W1 1 Ukm Medical Molecular Biology Institute, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia; 2Nutritional Sciences Programme, School of Healthcare Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Childhood obesity is rapidly emerging as a global epidemic, and genome wide association studies have demonstrated a link between ADIPOQ gene polymorphisms in different populations. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the association between polymorphisms of ADIPOQ gene (rs182052 and rs1501299, rs9882205 and rs12495941) with obesity and metabolic phenotypes in Malay children. A total of 528 normal weight and 557 overweight and obese primary school children aged 6–12 years old were recruited from metropolitan Kuala Lumpur. Body weight, height, waist and hip circumferences, and body composition were measured, and body mass index (BMI) was categorised based on WHO 2007. Blood samples were taken for lipid profile and fasting glucose analysis. DNA genotyping was conducted using semiautomated Sequenom iPLEX® Gold assay. The genotype distributions of all the SNPs were in Hardy Weinberg equilibrium. The minor allele frequency of the A-allele for rs182052 and rs1501299 were 39.2% and 32.3%, respectively; while G-allele for rs9882205 was 38.9%, and T-allele for rs12495941 was 42.2%. Among all SNPs studied, only rs12495941 polymorphisms were significantly associated with risk of obesity with a lower age- and sex-adjusted odds-ratio for homozygous T/T compared to G/G (OR = 0.647; 95% CI: 0.451–0.927). Besides that, rs12495941 gene variants were also significantly associated with decreased BMI, body fat mass, total skinfold and waist circumference (p < 0.05). However, all the polymorphic genes showed no significant association with metabolic phenotypes. In conclusion, polymorphisms of the ADIPOQ rs12495941 gene variants could decrease susceptibility to obesity in Malay children. Funding Disclosure: This study was funded by the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Arus Perdana Research Grant (Project Code: UKM-AP-TKP-11-201).

AS:09 Bariatric surgery update 2013; 5-year single center experience in South Korea Yong Jin, K* Soonchunhyang University Seoul Hospital Obesity has become one of the most important public health problem worldwide. Obesity is closely associated with various medical con-

© 2014 The Authors obesity reviews © 2014 International Association for the Study of Obesity

Abstracts 3

ditions such as hypertension, diabetes, obstructive sleep apnea, dyslipidemia, gastroesophageal reflux disorder, arthropathy, and coronary artery disease, as well as with increased mortality and reduction in life expectancy. These conditions could be significantly improved or cured by losing weight, but none of the conventional conservative measures including lifestyle modification and medical treatment showed satisfactory results in terms of sustained weight loss and clinical improvement of comorbidities. In the meanwhile, several studies have demonstrated that bariatric surgery is effective in achieving sustained weight loss, reducing obesity-related comorbidities, as well as in improving quality of life in the long-term. The Swedish Obese Subjects Trial (SOS trial), the largest clinical trial comparing surgical versus medical treatment of severe obesity, revealed the striking benefits of bariatric surgery on obesity-related morbidity in contrast with relatively disappointing results of medical and behavioral treatment. Since then, there has been increasing interest in bariatric surgery as a measure to manage obesity and its comorbidities at the same time. As the efficacy and safety is demonstrated, bariatric surgery has become remarkably popular throughout the world accordingly and also in Asian countries over the last decade. Since 2009, the number of bariatric surgery performed in South Korea also has exponentially increased along with the trend in Asia and surpassed 1000 cases of annual performance. Here, we report our experience in bariatric surgery at a single specialized center in South Korea.

AS:10 Transient receptor potential channel-mediated activation and recruitment of brown adipose tissue in humans Yoneshiro, T*1; Matsushita, M2; Saito, M2 Hokkaido University; 2Tenshi College


In small rodents, brown adipose tissue (BAT) is activated by peripheral stimulation of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels by cold exposure or ingestion of some food ingredients such as capsinoids and paradol. Recent studies using fluorodeoxyglucose and positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) have demonstrated the existence of metabolically active BAT and its contribution to whole-body energy expenditure (EE) in adult humans, suggesting BAT as a target to prevent obesity. In the present study, we recruited 51 healthy males and measured their BAT activity (FDG-PET), EE (respiratory gas analysis) and body fatness (CT) before and after either acute or chronic stimulation of TRP by cold, capsinoids and paradol-rich extract of Grains of Paradise (GP). After 2-h cold exposure at 19°C, BAT activity and EE markedly increased compared with thermoneutral condition (27°C). The response of EE to 2-h cold (CIT) related to BAT activity independently of muscle shivering. Daily 2-h cold exposure for 6 weeks increased BAT activity and CIT, and concomitantly decreased body fat. In thermoneutral conditions, a single ingestion of either 9 mg capsinoids or 40 mg GP increased EE in individuals with metabolically active BAT, but not in those without it. Daily ingestion of either 9 mg capsinoids or 40 mg GP for 6 weeks increased BAT-dependent thermogenic capacity. BAT can be activated and recruited by TRP stimulation, and thereby contributes to whole-body EE and body fat reduction in humans.

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Abstracts of the 12th International Congress on Obesity, 17-20 March 2014, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Abstracts of the 12th International Congress on Obesity, 17-20 March 2014, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. - PDF Download Free
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