Research Article Analysis of Mathematical Modelling on Potentiometric Biosensors N. Mehala1 and L. Rajendran2 1 2

Department of Mathematics, K.L.N. College of Engineering, Sivagangai, Tamil Nadu, India Department of Mathematics, The Madura College, Madurai, Tamil Nadu 625 011, India

Correspondence should be addressed to L. Rajendran; raj [email protected] Received 25 February 2014; Accepted 30 March 2014; Published 7 May 2014 Academic Editors: T. Kietzmann and Y. Zhang Copyright ยฉ 2014 N. Mehala and L. Rajendran. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. A mathematical model of potentiometric enzyme electrodes for a nonsteady condition has been developed. The model is based on the system of two coupled nonlinear time-dependent reaction diffusion equations for Michaelis-Menten formalism that describes the concentrations of substrate and product within the enzymatic layer. Analytical expressions for the concentration of substrate and product and the corresponding flux response have been derived for all values of parameters using the new homotopy perturbation method. Furthermore, the complex inversion formula is employed in this work to solve the boundary value problem. The analytical solutions obtained allow a full description of the response curves for only two kinetic parameters (unsaturation/saturation parameter and reaction/diffusion parameter). Theoretical descriptions are given for the two limiting cases (zero and first order kinetics) and relatively simple approaches for general cases are presented. All the analytical results are compared with simulation results using Scilab/Matlab program. The numerical results agree with the appropriate theories.

1. Introduction Electrochemical biosensors are used as detectors in several commercial analyzers for the accurate and rapid determination of various metabolites such as urea, glucose, lactate, and creatinine [1โ5]. These biosensors are fabricated by immobilizing appropriate bioreagents (i.e., enzymes) in a layer adjacent to the sensing surface of the basic electrochemical transducers. The enzyme layer catalyzes the conversion of metabolite molecules, ultimately consuming or producing an electrochemically detectable species. Thus, the analytical performance of these biosensor systems is largely dependent upon the properties of the immobilized enzyme layer incorporated. A biosensor is an analytical device comprising of a biological element capable to recognize an analyte, coupled with a transducer which generates a signal proportional to the concentration of the analyte and it combines the selectivity and specificity of an immobilized biologically active compound with a signal transducer [6โ8]. The analytical

application of biosensors has become a focus of interest and a subject of rapid progress [9โ11]. The theory of enzymebased potentiometric sensors is being treated in a series of pioneering contributions. Explicit solutions were derived by Blaedel et al. [12] for the steady state response of such electrodes which apply either to very high or to sufficiently low substrate concentrations. Carr followed the same results from a Fourier analysis as limiting cases for long periods [13, 14]. A relatively simple approach was presented by Morf and he obtained an explicit result for the electrode response that applies to the whole range of substrate concentration [15, 16]. The response behaviors of potentiometric enzyme electrodes as well as the product release from enzyme reactors were treated for the steady-state case in paper [17] and for the nonsteady state in paper [18] by the same author. Numerical simulations were developed for modeling the reaction and diffusion processes that arise in the functional enzyme membranes of such systems. These simulations represent a kind of virtual experiments and they allowed it to get insight into

2

ISRN Biochemistry

the concentration profiles and fluxes of substrate and product species and to analyze the final response characteristics of enzyme-based sensors and reactors [11, 19]. To our knowledge, no general analytical expressions of the concentrations of the substrate, product, and current have been reported for all values of parameters [13]. The purpose of this communication is to derive the concentrations of the substrate, product, and current for all values of reaction parameters using homotopy perturbation method. The theoretical treatments make use of the homotopy perturbation method and lead to relationships for all decisive quantities as a function of time. The theoretical results agree with simulated data and offer the basis for reliable predictions of response time ranges for enzyme electrodes and enzyme reactors.

๐ฅ = ๐ [17, 18]. The initial state is given by zero concentrations of substrate and product species throughout [17]. Consider ๐[๐]em =0 ๐๐ฅ

๐[๐]em = 0, ๐๐ฅ [๐]em = ๐๐ [๐]aq,

when ๐ฅ = 0

[๐]em = ๐๐ [๐]aq

[๐]em = 0,

[๐]em = 0

when ๐ฅ = ๐

(4)

when ๐ก = 0.

For enzyme reactors, the outward flux of the product species at ๐ฅ = ๐ is described by ๐ฝ๐ = โ๐ท๐

๐[๐]em ๓ตจ๓ตจ๓ตจ๓ตจ , ๓ตจ ๐๐ฅ ๓ตจ๓ตจ๓ตจ๐ฅ=๐

(5)

where ๐ท๐ is the diffusion coefficient of the product.

2. Mathematical Formation of the Problem In this paper, we consider the analytical system based on an enzyme-containing bulk membrane of thickness ๐ that contains a uniform total concentration of the enzyme ๐ธ which is contacted on one side with an aqueous solution of the substrate ๐. The substrate molecules diffuse into the membrane phase where they react in accordance with Michaelis-Menten type enzyme catalyzed reaction [20, 21] to yield an electroactive product ๐. Consider ๐1

๐3

๐ธ + ๐ ๓ด๓ดฏ ๐ธ๐ ๓ณจโ ๐ธ + ๐๐, ๐2

3. Dimensionless Form of the Problem To compare the analytical results with the simulation results, we make the above nonlinear partial differential equations (3) in dimensionless form by defining the following parameters: ๐ข=

[๐]em , ๐๐ [๐]aq ๐ผ=

(1) ๐พ๐ = โ

where ๐พ๐ =

๐2 + ๐ 3 , ๐1

(2)

where ๐ธ๐ is the intermediate enzyme-substrate complex, ๐ is the number of product species obtained per substrate molecule, ๐1 , ๐2 , and ๐3 are the rate constants of the respective partial reactions, and ๐พ๐ is the Michaelis constant defined in (2). The influences of reaction and diffusion processes for the species ๐ and ๐ in the enzyme membrane are described by the following nonlinear governing equations: 2

๐ [๐]em ๐[๐]em [๐]em โ ๐3 [๐ธ]tot = ๐ท๐ 2 ๐๐ก ๐๐ฅ [๐]em + ๐พ๐ ๐[๐]em ๐2 [๐]em [๐]em + ๐๐3 [๐ธ]tot , = ๐ท๐ ๐๐ก ๐๐ฅ2 [๐]em + ๐พ๐

(3)

where [๐]em and [๐]em are the concentrations of the species in the enzyme membrane, ๐ท๐ and ๐ท๐ are the corresponding diffusion coefficients, [๐ธ]tot is the total concentration of free enzymes and enzyme-substrate complexes that is assumed to be constant within the membrane including surface zones, ๐ is the number of product species obtained per substrate molecule, and ๐3 is the rate constant for the irreversible step of product formation [17, 18]. Now, (3) are solved by assuming the zero fluxes at ๐ฅ = 0 and of equilibrium distribution at

[๐]em , ๐๐ [๐]aq

V=

๐๐ [๐]aq ๐๐

๐๐2 , ๐ท๐

,

๐ฝ=

๐=

๐=

๐ฅ , ๐

๐๐ [๐]aq

(6)

๐๐

๐3 [๐ธ]tot , ๐พ๐

๐=

๐ท๐ก . ๐2

Here, we assume that ๐ท๐ = ๐ท๐ = ๐ท. Equations (3) reduce to the following dimensionless form: ๐พ๐ 2 ๐ข ๐๐ข ๐2 ๐ข โ = ๐๐ ๐๐2 ๐ผ๐ข + 1 ๐๐พ๐ 2 ๐ข ๐V ๐2 V + = , ๐๐ ๐๐2 ๐ผ๐ข + 1

(7)

where ๐ข and V represents the dimensionless concentration of substrate and product, ๐ผ and ๐ฝ are saturation parameters, and ๐พ๐ is the reaction diffusion parameter (Thiele modulus). Now, the boundary conditions may be presented as follows [17, 18]: ๐๐ข = 0, ๐๐

๐V = 0 when ๐ = 0 ๐๐

(8)

๐ข = 1,

V=

๐ฝ ๐ผ

when ๐ = 1

(9)

๐ข = 0,

V=0

when ๐ = 0.

(10)

The normalized flux becomes ๐=

๐ฝ๐ ๐ ๐ท๐๐ [๐]aq

๓ตจ๓ตจ ๐V ๓ตจ๓ตจ ๓ตจ ๓ตจ = โ๓ตจ๓ตจ๓ตจ ๓ตจ๓ตจ๓ตจ . ๓ตจ๓ตจ ๐๐ ๓ตจ๓ตจ๐=1

(11)

ISRN Biochemistry

3

4. Analytical Expressions for the Concentrations and Current for All Values of Parameters By using Laplace transform technique and new Homotopy perturbation method (Appendix A), we can obtain the concentrations of substrate and product as follows:

โโ( ๐=0

๐(โ1) (2๐ + 1) โ(๐๐ ๐) (2๐ + 1) ๐๐ )๐ cos ๐๐ 2

๐๐ = V (๐ฅ, ๐) = (๐ +

2 2 ๐ฝ 4 โ (โ1)๐ + ๐) (1 โ โ [( ) ๐โ(๐ (2๐+1) /4)๐ ๐ผ ๐ ๐=0 2๐ + 1

(2๐ + 1) ๐๐ ]) 2

ร cos

(2๐ + 1)2 ๐2 + ๐พ๐ 4

๐ฝ 4 โ (โ1)๐ ) [1 โ โ ๐ผ ๐ ๐=0 2๐ + 1 ร cos

The analytical expression for the dimensionless current is given by ๐ (๐) = ๐ (๐พ๐ tanh ๐พ๐ +

where ๐พ2 ๐= ๐ . 1+๐ผ

(14)

The analytical expression for the dimensionless current is given by โ 2 2 ๐ฝ + ๐) [ โ 2(โ1)๐ ๐(โ๐ (2๐+1) /4)๐ ] ๐ผ ๐=0 โ

2๐2 (2๐ + 1)2 ๐โ(๐๐ )๐ ], 2 2 ๐=0 ๐ (2๐ + 1) + 4๐

(15)

โ ๐ [โ๐ tanh โ๐ + โ

โ 2 2 ๐ฝ โ (๐ + ) [2 โ ๐โ((2๐+1) ๐ ๐/4) ] . ๐ผ ๐=0

(20)

6. Analytical Solutions for the Concentrations and the Current for Saturated (Zero Order) Kinetics Next, we consider the limiting case where the substrate concentration is relatively high. In this case, ๐ผ๐ข โฅ 1 ([๐]em โฅ ๐พ๐). Equations (7) will be reduced to the following form:

(21) 2 ๐V ๐2 V ๐๐พ๐ + = . ๐๐ ๐๐2 ๐ผ The analytical expressions for the concentrations of substrate and product are as follows [22]:

5. Analytical Expressions for the Concentrations and Current for Unsaturated (First Order) Kinetics Now, we consider the limiting case where the substrate concentration is relatively low. In this case, ๐ผ๐ข โค 1 (i.e., [๐]em โค ๐พ๐). Then, (7) will be reduced to the following dimensionless form: 2

๐V ๐2 V + ๐๐พ๐ 2 ๐ข. = ๐๐ ๐๐2

๐2 โ (2๐ + 1)2 โ๐๐ ๐ ๐ ) โ 2 ๐=0 ๐๐

2 ๐๐ข ๐2 ๐ข ๐พ๐ โ = ๐๐ ๐๐2 ๐ผ

where ๐๐ and ๐ are defined as in (14).

๐๐ข ๐ ๐ข โ ๐พ๐ 2 ๐ข = ๐๐ ๐๐2

(2๐ + 1) ๐๐ โ((2๐+1)2 ๐2 /4)๐ ] ๐ 2 (19)

(13)

๐2 (2๐ + 1)2 + 4๐ ๐๐ = , 4

(18)

โ ๐ [๐ข (๐ฅ, ๐)] .

โ ๐๐ข (๐ฅ, ๐) ,

๐=(

2๐ + 1 (2๐ + 1) ๐๐ โ๐๐ ๐ ) cos , ๐ ๐๐ 2 (17)

where ๐

(12) V (๐ฅ, ๐) = (

โ

โ ๐ โ (โ1)๐ ( ๐=0

cosh (โ๐๐) ๐ข (๐ฅ, ๐) = cosh (โ๐) โ

The dimensionless form of concentrations obtained by Morf et al. [17] using method of expressions in partial fractions is as follows: cosh (๐พ๐ ๐) ๐ข (๐ฅ, ๐) = cosh (๐พ๐ )

๐ข (๐, ๐) = 1 +

๐พ๐ 2 (๐2 โ 1) 2๐ผ 16๐พ๐ 2

โ

+ โ (โ1)๐ ( ๐=1

ร cos ( (16) V (๐, ๐) = 1 โ

๐3 ๐ผ(2๐

โ 1)

3

โ

4 ) ๐ (2๐ โ 1)

2 2 (๐ โ 1) ๐๐ ) [๐โ((๐โ1)/2) ๐ ๐ ] 2

๐๐พ๐ 2 (๐2 โ 1) 2๐ผ

4

ISRN Biochemistry 1

๐พs = 0.5

0.8

Dimensionless concentration u

Dimensionless concentration u

1

๐พs = 1 0.6

0.4

๐พs = 2 ๐ผ = 0.001

0.2

๐พs = 4

๐พs = 3

๐พs = 0.5

0.95

๐พs = 0.3 ๐พs = 0.1

0.9 ๐พs = 0.8 0.85 ๐พs = 1

๐ผ=1

0.8

๐พs = 5 0

0

0.2

0.4 0.6 Dimensionless distance X

0.8

0.75

1

0

0.2

(a)

0.4 0.6 Dimensionless distance X

0.8

1

(b)

Dimensionless concentration u

1.1

๐ผ = 0.001

1

๐ผ = 0.01

0.9 ๐ผ=1 0.8 ๐พs = 1 ๐ผ = 10

0.7

๐ผ = 100 0

0.2

0.4 0.6 Dimensionless distance X

0.8

1

(c)

Figure 1: Plot of dimensionless nonsteady concentration profiles of the substrate ๐ข versus dimensionless distance ๐ for various values of the parameters ๐พ๐ and ๐ผ, when ๐ = 100. Solid lines represent the numerical simulation and the dotted lines represent the analytical solution (12).

16๐พ๐ 2

โ

+ โ (โ1)๐ (

๐3 ๐ผ(2๐

3

โ

4 ) ๐ (2๐ โ 1)

7. Numerical Simulation

โ 1) 2 2 (๐ โ 1) ๐๐ ร cos ( ) [๐โ((๐โ1)/2) ๐ ๐ ] . 2 ๐=1

(22) The analytical expression for the dimensionless current is given by ๐ (๐) =

๐๐พ๐ 2 2๐ผ

โ

+ โ 2(โ1)๐ (๐ โ 1) (

4๐พ๐ 2 ๐2 ๐ผ(2๐

3

โ

โ 1) 2 2 1 ร sin ((๐ โ ) ๐) [๐โ((๐โ1/2) ๐ )๐ ] . 2 ๐=1

1 ) (2๐ โ 1)

(23)

The diffusion equations (7) for the corresponding boundary conditions (8), (9), and (10) are solved by numerical methods. The function pdex 4 in Matlab software, which is a function of solving the initial boundary value problems for partial differential equations, was used to solve these equations numerically (Appendix A). The numerical solutions are compared with our analytical results as shown in Figures 1, 2, 3, and 5 and this comparison gives a satisfactory agreement for some possible values of the reaction diffusion parameters.

8. Results and Discussions Equations (12) and (13) are the new analytical expressions of concentrations of substrate and product for all values

ISRN Biochemistry

5

1

0.3

0.8

๐ผ = 0.001 ๐พs = 2

0.6

0.4 ๐พs = 1 0.2

๐พs = 0.8

0.2 0.15 0.1

๐พs = 0.5

0.05

๐พs = 0.3

๐พs = 0.5

0

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

๐ผ = 0.5

๐พs = 1

0.25

๐พs = 4

๐พs = 3

Dimensionless concentration v

Dimensionless concentration v

๐พs = 5

0

๐พs = 0.1 0

0.2

Dimensionless distance X

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

Dimensionless distance X

(a)

(b)

1

Dimensionless concentration v

๐ = 0.5

๐พs = 1

0.8

๐ผ = 0.001 ๐=1

0.6 ๐ = 1.5 0.4

๐=2 ๐ = 2.5

0.2

0

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

Dimensionless distance X (c)

Figure 2: Plot of dimensionless nonsteady concentration profiles of the product V versus dimensionless distance ๐ for various values of the parameters ๐พ๐ , ๐ผ, and ๐, when ๐ = 100. Solid lines represent the numerical simulation and the dotted lines represent the analytical solution (13).

of parameters ๐พ๐ and ๐ผ. The previously reported analytical results ((17) and (19)) are in terms of the parameter ๐พ๐ only. Figure 1 shows the time-dependent evolution of normalized concentration profiles for the substrate ๐ข in the enzyme membrane of a potentiometric sensor. Figures 1(a)โ1(c) show dimensionless concentration ๐ข versus the dimensionless distance ๐. The reaction diffusion parameter ๐พ๐ is an indicator of the competition between the reaction and diffusion. When ๐พ๐ is small, the kinetics dominate and the uptake of the substrate are kinetically controlled. From Figure 1(a), it is evident that the value of the substrate concentration ๐ข decreases when the reaction diffusion parameter ๐พ๐ increases for different values of ๐ผ. Figure 1(b) illustrates that, when ๐พ๐ increases, the concentration of the substrate ๐ข decreases even though the value of ๐ผ is increased. It is obvious from Figure 1(c) that when ๐ผ increases the concentration ๐ข decreases and if ๐ผ is

very small, the concentration of the substrate is uniform and the curve becomes a straight line. Recently, Sivasankari and Rajendran [23] discussed the same mathematical model of potentiometric biosensors for the steady state and according to them when the diffusion parameter ๐พ๐ is very small, the diffusion of the substrate concentration will be uniform and the curve becomes straight line. This reveals that the parameter time ๐ก has greater impact on diffusion. The normalized concentration of the product V for various values of ๐ผ and ๐ is plotted in Figures 2(a)โ2(c). From the figures we can conclude that the normalized product V increases with the decrease in the value of ๐ and increases with the increase in the value of ๐ผ. Figures 3(a) and 3(b) show the evolution of concentration profiles of the substrate [๐]em and the product [๐]em for the experimental values of the diffusion coefficient ๐ท, for the thickness of the membrane ๐,

6

ISRN Biochemistry 0.5

1 D = 0.0450 m2 /s d = 0.30 m

0.8

D = 0.0450 m2 /s d = 0.30 m

0.4 Concentration [P]em

Concentration [S]em

a = 0.5 a = 10

0.6

a = 15 a = 20

0.4

a = 25 a = 30

0.2

0

0

a = 0.4

0.3

a = 0.3 0.2

a = 0.2 a = 0.1

0.1

10 20 Thickness of the enzyme membrane d

0

30

0

5

10

15

20

25

30

Thickness of the enzyme membrane d

(a)

(b)

Figure 3: Plot of nonsteady concentration profiles of the substrate and product versus thickness of the membrane ๐ when ๐ = 1 and for various values of the parameters ๐ and ๐ท. Solid lines represent the numerical simulation and the dotted lines represent the analytical solutions (6), (12), and (13).

1 [P]em

0.8

Concentrations [S]em and [P]em

Dimensionless concentrations u and

1

0.6

0.4

0.2

u

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2 [S]em

0

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

Dimensionless distance X (a)

1

0

0

10 20 Thickness of the enzyme membrane d

30

(b)

Figure 4: (a) Plot of dimensionless concentrations ๐ข and V versus dimensionless distance ๐ when the dimensionless parameter ๐พ๐ = 5, ๐ = 1, and ๐ = 0.001 using (12) and (13). (b) Plot of concentrations [๐]em and [๐]em versus the thickness of the membrane ๐ for the experimental values of the parameters ๐ท = 0.045 m2 /s, ๐ = 1, and ๐ = 15 using (6), (12), and (13).

and for various values of ๐. From the figures, it is inferred that the concentration of the substrate increases slowly when ๐ โค 20 and increases sharply when 20 โค ๐ โค 30. The values of the concentrations of the substrate do not differ significantly for all values of ๐ whereas the values of the concentration of the product differ significantly for some values of ๐. Figure 4(a) indicates the normalized concentration of the substrate and product for the approximate analytical values of the parameters which reveals that, at time ๐ก = 0, the membrane surface at ๐ = 30 is brought in contact with

a substrate sample. The substrate molecules then start to diffuse into the enzyme layer whereas Figure 4(b) represents the concentration of the substrate and product for the experimental values of the parameters involved in the solutions of the nonlinear differential equations (3). The figure infers that the catalytic reaction generates an increasing concentration of product species towards the side of the indicator electrode at ๐ = 0. Also, from the figure, it is confirmed that ๐ข + V = 1 or [๐]em + [๐]em = 1, for all values of time and also for all values of the parameters involved.

ISRN Biochemistry

7

1

1

0.8

0.8

๐=2 ๐ = 1.5

Dimensionless concentration v

Dimensionless concentration u

๐=1

0.6

0.4

0.2

๐ = 0.5

0.6

0.4 ๐ = 0.2

๐พs = 10 ๐ผ = 0.001 ๐=1

0.2 ๐ = 0.1

0

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

0

1

0

0.2

Dimensionless distance X

0.4 0.6 Dimensionless distance X

(a)

0.8

1

(b)

Figure 5: (a) Plot of dimensionless concentrations ๐ข versus dimensionless distance ๐ for various values of ๐, ๐พ๐ , and ๐ผ from bottom to top using (12). (b) Plot of dimensionless concentrations V versus dimensionless distance ๐ for various values of ๐, ๐พ๐ , ๐ผ, and ๐ using (13). 1.5

1.5

๐พs = 1.35

๐พs = 1.3 1

Dimensionless current ๐

Dimensionless current ๐

๐พs = 1.4

๐พs = 1.2 ๐พs = 1.1 ๐พs = 1

0.5

๐ผ = 0.1

1

๐ผ = 0.3 ๐ผ = 0.5 ๐ผ = 0.7 ๐ผ = 0.9

0.5

๐ผ = 0.001

0

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

0

0

0.2

Dimensionless time ๐

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

Dimensionless time ๐

(a)

(b)

Figure 6: Plot of dimensionless current ๐ versus dimensionless time ๐ for various values of the parameters ๐พ๐ and ๐ผ using (15).

Figure 5(a) exhibits that the dimensionless concentration ๐ข increases as the dimensionless time ๐ increases and Figure 5(b) illustrates that the dimensionless concentration V also increases with the increase in the dimensionless time ๐. Figure 6(a) characterizes the dimensionless flux versus the dimensionless time for various values of the reaction diffusion parameter ๐พ๐ and for some ๐ผ and the figure reveals that the value of the flux increases as ๐พ๐ increases, whereas Figure 6(b) exhibits that the value of flux increases as the value of the parameter ๐ผ decreases. Our analytical results (12) and numerical results for substrate concentration are compared with previous analytical results (17) of Morf et al. [17] in Figure 7. It exhibits that when ๐ผ is small there is a coincidence between both the results, whereas, when ๐ผ is 1, there is a significant difference

between both the results. The same observation for the product concentration is exhibited in Figure 8.

9. Conclusion The theoretical analysis of behaviour of potentiometric biosensor was done. The coupled time-dependent nonsteady state nonlinear diffusion equations have been solved analytically and numerically. Moreover we have obtained analytical expressions for the substrate, product concentrations and steady state flux. A good agreement with numerical simulation data is noticed. These analytical results will be used in determining the kinetic characteristics of the biosensor. The theoretical model presented here can be used for the optimization of the design of the biosensor. Furthermore,

ISRN Biochemistry 1

1

0.95

0.95 Dimensionless concentration u

Dimensionless concentration u

8

0.9 0.85 0.8 0.75 ๐พs = 1 ๐ผ = 0.1

0.7 0.65

0.9 0.85 0.8 0.75 0.7

๐พs = 1 ๐ผ=1

0.65 0

0.2

0.4 0.6 Dimensionless distance X

0.8

1

0

0.2

(a)

0.4 0.6 Dimensionless distance X

0.8

1

(b)

Figure 7: Plot of dimensionless concentration ๐ข versus dimensionless distance ๐ for various values of ๐พ๐ and ๐ผ where โorange straight lineโ represents numerical solution, โblack dotted lineโ represents analytical solution of our work (12), and โpurple dashed lineโ represents the analytical solution of Worf โs work (17). 0.5 ๐พs = 1 ๐ผ = 0.1

0.4

Dimensionless concentration v

Dimensionless concentration v

0.5

0.3

0.2

0.1

0

0

0.2

0.4 0.6 0.8 Dimensionless distance X

1

๐พs = 1 ๐ผ=1

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0

0

0.2

(a)

0.4 0.6 Dimensionless distance X

0.8

1

(b)

Figure 8: Plot of dimensionless concentration V versus dimensionless distance ๐ for various values of ๐พ ๐ and ๐ผ where โorange straight lineโ represents numerical solution, โblack dotted lineโ represents analytical solution of our work (13), and โpurple dashed lineโ represents the analytical solution of Worf โs work (19).

based on the outcome of this work, there is a possibility of extending the procedure to find the approximate amounts of substrate and product concentrations and current for the reciprocal competitive inhibition process.

Appendices A. Solution of (7) Using Complex Inversion Formula In this appendix, we indicate how (12) and (13) are derived. Using new homotopy perturbation approach [24, 25], (7) can

be written as ๐พ๐ 2 ๐ข ๐๐ข ๐2 ๐ข โ = ๐๐ ๐๐2 ๐ผ๐ข [๐ = 1] + 1 ๐๐พ๐ 2 ๐ข ๐V ๐2 V + = . ๐๐ ๐๐2 ๐ผ๐ข [๐ = 1] + 1 (A.1) By using (9) in (A.1), we get ๐๐ข ๐2 ๐ข โ ๐๐ข = ๐๐ ๐๐2

(A.2)

ISRN Biochemistry

9 ๐V ๐2 V + ๐๐๐ข, = ๐๐ ๐๐2

(A.3)

where ๐ is defined as in (14). Now, by applying Laplace transform to (A.2) and to the conditions in (8), (9), and (10), we obtained the solution of (A.2) as ๐ข =

cosh (โ๐ + ๐๐) . ๐ cosh (โ๐ + ๐)

=

=

Re ๐ โ๐ cosh (โ๐ + ๐)โ๐ =๐

๐

= lim [

exp (๐ ๐) cosh (โ๐ + ๐) ๐ ] ๐ cosh (โ๐ + ๐)

1

= lim [

exp (๐ ๐) cosh (โ๐ + ๐) ๐ ] ๐ (๐/๐๐ ) cosh (โ๐ + ๐)

๐+๐โ

2๐ โซ๐โ๐โ exp [๐ ๐] ๐ฆ (๐ ) ๐๐ 1 โฎ exp [๐ ๐] ๐ฆ (๐ ) ๐๐ , 2๐๐ ๐

๐

(A.5)

=โโ[ ๐=0

(A.6)

๐ข (๐, ๐) cosh โ๐๐ cosh โ๐ โ

๐ฆ (๐) = โ Re ๐ [exp [๐ ๐] ๐ฆ (๐ )]๐ =๐ 0 . ๐

(A.7)

From the theory of complex variables, we can show that the residue of a function ๐น(๐ง) at a simple pole at ๐ง = ๐ is given by Re ๐ [๐น (๐ง)]๐ง=๐ = lim {(๐ง โ ๐) ๐น (๐ง)} . ๐งโ๐

(A.8)

Hence, in order to invert (A.4), we need to evaluate cosh (โ๐ + ๐) ๐ ]. Re ๐ [ ๐ cosh (โ๐ + ๐)

โโ[ ๐=0

(โ1)๐ ๐ (2๐ + 1) ๐โ๐๐ ๐ cos ((2๐ + 1) ๐๐/2) ], ๐๐ (A.14)

where ๐๐ is defined as in (14). Similarly, we can solve (A.3) by using complex inversion formula.

B. Matlab Program for the Summation of Series in (12) The Matlab program for finding the numerical solution for (7) is as follows:

(A.9)

The poles are obtained from ๐ cosh โ๐ + ๐ = 0. Hence, there is a simple pole at ๐ = 0 and there are infinitely many poles given by the solution of the equation cosh โ๐ + ๐ = 0 and so where ๐ = 0, 1, 2, . . .

(โ1)๐ ๐ (2๐ + 1) ๐โ๐๐ ๐ cos ((2๐ + 1) ๐๐/2) ], ๐๐ (A.13)

where ๐๐ is defined as in (14). Here, we used cosh(๐๐) = cos(๐) and sinh(๐๐) = ๐ sin(๐). From (A.11), (A.12), and (A.13), we conclude that

=

where the residues are computed at the poles of the function ๐น(๐ง). Hence, from (A.6), we note that

โ๐ (2๐ + 1) โ 4๐ 4

๐ โ ๐ ๐

โ

๐

2

cosh โ๐๐ . cosh โ๐ (A.12)

๐ โ ๐ ๐

โฎ ๐น (๐ง) ๐๐ง = 2๐๐ โ Re ๐ [๐น (๐ง)]๐ง=๐ง0 ,

๐ ๐ =

๐ โ0

exp (๐ ๐) cosh (โ๐ + ๐) ๐ ] ๐ cosh (โ๐ + ๐)

The second residue in (A.11) is given by

where the integration in (A.5) is to be performed along a line ๐ = ๐ in the complex plane where ๐ = ๐ฅ + ๐๐ฆ. The real number ๐ is chosen such that ๐ = ๐ lies to the right of all the singularities but is otherwise assumed to be arbitrary. In practice, the integral is evaluated by considering the contour integral presented on the right-hand side of (A.5), which is then evaluated using the so-called Bromwich contour. The contour integral is then evaluated using the residue theorem which states, for any analytic function ๐น(๐ง), that

2

Re ๐ [๐ cosh (โ๐ + ๐)]๐ =0 = lim [

(A.4)

In this appendix, we indicate how (A.4) may be inverted using the complex inversion formula. If ๐ฆ(๐ ) represents the Laplace transform of a function ๐ฆ(๐), then, according to the complex inversion formula, we can state that ๐ฆ (๐) =

The first residue in (A.11) is given by

(A.10)

function pdex 4 m = 0; x = linspace(0,1); t = linspace(0,1); sol = pdepe(m,@pdex4pde,@pdex4ic,@pdex4bc,x,t); u1 = sol(:,:,1);

Hence, we note that

u2 = sol(:,:,2);

๐ข (๐, ๐) = Re ๐ โ๐ cosh (โ๐ + ๐)โ๐ =0

figure

+ Re ๐ โ๐ cosh (โ๐ + ๐)โ๐ =๐ . ๐

(A.11)

plot(x,u1(end,:)) title(โu1(x,t)โ)

10

ISRN Biochemistry xlabel(โDistance xโ)

g0 = 0;

ylabel(โu1(x,2)โ)

g = g0+((-1)โง (n)โ(2โn+1)โpiโ(cos(((2โn+1)โpiโx)

%โโโโโโโโโโโโโโโโโโโโโโ

/2))โ(exp(((-rโง 2/(1+a))-((2โn+1)โง 2โpiโง 2)/4)โt))

figure

/(((2โn+1)โง 2โpiโง 2+4โ(rโง 2/(1+a)))/4));

plot(x,u2(end,:)) title(โu2(x,t)โ)

end

xlabel(โDistance xโ)

u = (cosh(sqrt(rโง 2/(1+a))โx)/cosh(sqrt(rโง 2/(1+a))));

ylabel(โu2(x,2)โ) %โโโโโโโโโโโโโโโโโโโโโโ

v = bโ(1-s-u-g);

function [c,f,s] = pdex4pde(x,t,u,DuDx)

plot(x,v);

c = [1;1]; f = [1;1].โDuDx;

Nomenclature and Units

r = 10;

[๐]em :

a = 0.001; b = 1; F1 = -(rโง 2โu(1))/(1+aโu(1)); F2 = bโ(rโง 2โu(1))/(1+aโu(1)); s = [F1;F2]; % โโโโโโโโโโโโโโโโโโโโโ function u0 = pdex4ic(x) u0 = [0;0]; % โโโโโโโโโโโโโโโโโโโโโ function [pl,ql,pr,qr] = pdex4bc (xl,ul,xr,ur,t) pl = [0;0]; ql = [1;1]; pr = [ur(1)-1; ur(2)]; qr = [0;0];

C. Matlab Program for the Numerical Solution in (7) Matlab program for finding the summation of the series in (12) is as follows: r = 10; a = 0.001; x = linspace(0,1); t = 100; b = 1; s0 = 0; N = 100; for n = 0 : 1:N+1; s = s0+((4โ(-1)โง nโcos(((2โn+1)/2)โpiโx)โ exp((((piโง 2โ(2โn+1)โง 2)/4))โt))/(piโ(2โn+1))); end for n = 0:1:N+1;

Substrate concentration in the enzyme membrane (mole/cm3 ) Product concentration in [๐]em : the enzyme membrane (mole/cm3 ) Substrate concentration in [๐]aq : the sample (mole/cm3 ) Product concentration in [๐]aq : the sample (mole/cm3 ) Diffusion coefficient of the ๐ท๐ : substrate (mole/cm3 ) Diffusion coefficient of the ๐ท๐ : product (mole/cm3 ) Rate constant for ๐3 : irreversible step (secโ1 ) Michaelis constant ๐พ๐: (mole/cm3 ) Total concentration of free [๐ธ]tot : enzymes (mole/cm3 ) ๐: Number of product species (none) Distribution coefficient of ๐๐ and ๐๐ : the species between aqueous phase and enzyme membrane (none) ๐ = ๐3 [๐ธ]tot /๐พ๐: Rate constant (secโ1 ) ๐ = ๐ฅ/๐: Dimensionless distance (none) ๐ฅ: Distance (cm) ๐: Thickness of the enzyme membrane (cm) ๐ข: Dimensionless concentration of substrate (none) V: Dimensionless concentration of product (none) ๐ผ = ๐๐ [๐]aq /๐พ๐: Parameter quantifying the degree of unsaturation/saturation of the catalytic kinetics (none)

ISRN Biochemistry ๐ฝ = ๐๐ [๐]aq /๐พ๐:

11 Parameter quantifying the degree of unsaturation/saturation of the catalytic kinetics (none)

๐พ๐ = โ๐๐2 /๐ท๐ :

Diffusion rate constant of substrate through the polymer matrix reaction diffusion parameter (none) Dimensionless time (none) ๐ = ๐ท๐ก/๐2 : ๐ก: Time (sec) Dimensionless parameter ๐ = ๐พ๐ 2 /(1 + ๐ผ): (none) ๐๐ = (๐2 (2๐ + 1)2 + 4๐)/4: Dimensionless parameter (none) ๐๐ = ((2๐ + 1)2 ๐2 /4) + ๐พ๐ : Dimensionless parameter (none).

Conflict of Interests The authors declare that there is no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this paper.

[10] [11]

[12]

[13]

[14]

[15]

[16] [17]

Acknowledgments This work was supported by the CSIR (no. 01(2422)/10/EMRII), New Delhi, India. The authors are thankful to Dr. Murali, Principal of the Madura College, Madurai, India, and the Secretary of the Madura College Board, Madurai, India, for their encouragement.

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