Hindawi Publishing Corporation BioMed Research International Volume 2017, Article ID 8013575, 13 pages http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2017/8013575
Review Article Diagnostic and Therapeutic Biomarkers in Glioblastoma: Current Status and Future Perspectives Wojciech Szopa,1 Thomas A. Burley,2 Gabriela Kramer-Marek,2 and Wojciech Kaspera1 1
Department of Neurosurgery, Medical University of Silesia, Regional Hospital, Sosnowiec, Poland Division of Radiotherapy and Imaging, The Institute of Cancer Research, London, UK
Correspondence should be addressed to Wojciech Kaspera; [email protected]
Received 11 August 2016; Accepted 13 December 2016; Published 20 February 2017 Academic Editor: Franco M. Buonaguro Copyright © 2017 Wojciech Szopa et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Glioblastoma (GBM) is a primary neuroepithelial tumor of the central nervous system, characterized by an extremely aggressive clinical phenotype. Patients with GBM have a poor prognosis and only 3–5% of them survive for more than 5 years. The current GBM treatment standards include maximal resection followed by radiotherapy with concomitant and adjuvant therapies. Despite these aggressive therapeutic regimens, the majority of patients suffer recurrence due to molecular heterogeneity of GBM. Consequently, a number of potential diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive biomarkers have been investigated. Some of them, such as IDH mutations, 1p19q deletion, MGMT promoter methylation, and EGFRvIII amplification are frequently tested in routine clinical practice. With the development of sequencing technology, detailed characterization of GBM molecular signatures has facilitated a more personalized therapeutic approach and contributed to the development of a new generation of anti-GBM therapies such as molecular inhibitors targeting growth factor receptors, vaccines, antibody-based drug conjugates, and more recently inhibitors blocking the immune checkpoints. In this article, we review the exciting progress towards elucidating the potential of current and novel GBM biomarkers and discuss their implications for clinical practice.
1. Introduction Glioblastoma (GBM) is a primary neuroepithelial tumor of the central nervous system, characterized by an extremely aggressive clinical phenotype that has arisen from interand intrapatient genomic and histopathological diversity (Figure 1; Table 1). GBM is the most common of malignant primary brain tumors in adults. It accounts for 12% to 15% of all intracranial tumors and about 50% of astrocytic tumors. Patients with GBM have a poor prognosis of just 12– 15 months following standard therapy, with only 3–5% of patients surviving up to 5 years after diagnosis [1, 2]. The most favorable prognostic factors include younger age at diagnosis (