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Effect of EDTA and Tannic Acid on the Removal of Cd, Ni, Pb and Cu from Artificially Contaminated Soil by Althaea rosea Cavan a

a

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Seydahmet Cay , Ahmet Uyanik , Mehmet Soner Engin & Hamdi Guray Kutbay a

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Arts and Science, Ondokuz Mayıs University, Kurupelit, Samsun, Turkey b

Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Giresun University, Giresun, Turkey c

Department of Biology, Faculty of Arts and Science, Ondokuz Mayıs University, Kurupelit, Samsun, Turkey Published online: 06 Mar 2015.

Click for updates To cite this article: Seydahmet Cay, Ahmet Uyanik, Mehmet Soner Engin & Hamdi Guray Kutbay (2015) Effect of EDTA and Tannic Acid on the Removal of Cd, Ni, Pb and Cu from Artificially Contaminated Soil by Althaea rosea Cavan, International Journal of Phytoremediation, 17:6, 568-574, DOI: 10.1080/15226514.2014.935285 To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15226514.2014.935285

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International Journal of Phytoremediation, 17: 568–574, 2015 C Taylor & Francis Group, LLC Copyright  ISSN: 1522-6514 print / 1549-7879 online DOI: 10.1080/15226514.2014.935285

Effect of EDTA and Tannic Acid on the Removal of Cd, Ni, Pb and Cu from Artificially Contaminated Soil by Althaea rosea Cavan SEYDAHMET CAY1, AHMET UYANIK1, MEHMET SONER ENGIN2, and HAMDI GURAY KUTBAY3 1

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Arts and Science, Ondokuz Mayıs University, Kurupelit, Samsun, Turkey Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Giresun University, Giresun, Turkey 3 Department of Biology, Faculty of Arts and Science, Ondokuz Mayıs University, Kurupelit, Samsun, Turkey

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In this study an ornamental plant of Althaea rosea Cavan was investigated for its potential use in the removal of Cd, Ni, Pb and Cu from an artificially contaminated soil. Effect of two different chelating agents on the removal has also been studied by using EDTA (ethylenediaminetetracetic acid) and TA (tannic acid). Both EDTA and TA have led to higher heavy metal concentration in shoots and leaves compared to control plants. However EDTA is generally known as an effective agent in metal solubilisation of soil, in this study, TA was found more effective to induce metal accumulation in Althaea rosea Cavan under the studied conditions. In addition to this, EDTA is toxic to some species and restraining the growth of the plants. The higher BCF (Bio Concentration Factor) and TF (Translocation Factor) values obtained from stems and leaves by the effects of the chemical enhancers (EDTA and TA) show that Althaea rosea Cavan is a hyper accumulator for the studied metals and may be cultivated to clean the contaminated soils. Keywords: phytoremediation, tannic acid, EDTA, trace metals, Althaea rosea Cavan, ornamental plant

Introduction Recent increases in the application of organic and inorganic wastes as soil amendments have raised concerns about their harmful effects. The most common toxic metals such as Cd, Ni, Pb and Cu generally present in most wastes and have adverse effects on health of living creatures. Those metals may not be easily degraded and their cleanup usually requires expensive removal processes (Lasat 2002). Different physical and chemical methods are used for this purpose and each method having its merits and demerits. Physical and chemical methods are generally considered as destructive, expensive, labor-intensive and causing secondary problems (Padmavathiamma and Li 2007). In comparison, phytoremediation is a less expensive, efficient, environment and eco-friendly remediation strategy with good public acceptance (Turan and Esringu 2007; Singh et al. 2009). This plant-based technique has shown significant economic, aesthetic and technical advantages compared with traditional techniques. Herbaceous plants such as crops and weeds are target plants for phytoremediation due to their short growth-cycle and fast biomass-accumulation. Little information is available on the

Address correspondence to Seydahmet Cay, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Arts and Science, Ondokuz Mayıs University 55139, Kurupelit, Samsun, Turkey. E-mail: [email protected]

ability of ornamental plants to remediate contaminated soils. These plants present many advantages including abundant plant species, exuberant vitality, fast growth and they beautify the environment at the same time. More importantly, most of them are not related to our food chain. Thus, phytoremediation by ornamental plants seems to be a promising choice in the future (Miao and Yan 2013). Use of ornamental plants such as Tagetes erecta, Salvia splendens, Abelmoschus manihot (Wang and Zhou 2005), Impatiens balsamina, Calendula officinalis, Althaea rosea (Liu et al. 2008), Lonicera japonica (Liu et al. 2011), Chlorophytum comosum (Wang et al. 2012), Tagates patula (Sun et al. 2011), Quamolit pennata, Antirrhinum majus L. and Celosia critata pyramidalis (Cui et al. 2013) were reported in previous studies. In order to increase remediation efficiency, the solubility of soil-bound trace metals can be promoted by a number of chemicals, including chelators (Chen et al. 2004). Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), ethylenegluatarotriacetic acid (EGTA), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) (Lestan et al. 2008), boric acid (BA) (Chernobrovkina et al. 2012), ammonium molibdat (AM) (Qu et al. 2011) and humic acid (Wang et al. 2010) were previously applied in the phytoremoval of heavy metal ions. Tannins also form complexes with metals through orthodihydroxyl groups. The resulting complexes can be mono-, bi-, or tri-dentate (Slabbert 1992). They are also highly aromatic compounds and thus provide many different pi-cation binding

EDTA and Tannic Acid Enhanced Phytoremediaton by Ornamental Plants sites for metal ions (Ma and Dougherty 1997; Zaric et al. 2000; Chin et al. 2009). Tannic acid forms complexes with environmentally toxic metals and alleviates their toxic effects (Schmidt et al. 2013). Tannic acid (TA) was chosen as organic ligand due to its high molecular weight and high polyphenol content. The purpose of this study is to assess the potential use of a fast growing, high biomass ornamental plant of Althaea rosea Cavan in the removal of Cd, Ni, Pb and Cu from artificially polluted soils and effect of EDTA and TA on this removal under the studied open field conditions.

Materials and Methods

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trace metals in soil was extracted by Aqua Regia method as modified by Salt et al. (1998). For this purpose 0.1 g sample was weighed into a volumetric flask and 10 mL of HNO3 was added. The digestion program consisted of two steps: 25 min at 360 W and after 5 mL of H2 O2 was added 5 min at 360 W. Cooled solution was transferred into a 100 mL calibrated flask and diluted with deionized water to volume. Using filter paper in any step to separate adsorbent materials from the final solutions causes remarkable systematic errors (constant type error) on the final concentration of the analyzed solutions (Engin et al. 2010). So, the aqueous phase was separated from the remaining plant by centrifugation. The trace metals concentration in plant tissues was determined with an Unicam 929 flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (FAAS).

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Plant Material and Culture Conditions The study was a pot experiment conducted in May-September 2012 at the Botanical Garden of Gazi Boarding School, ¨ u, ¨ Samsun, Turkey (N41◦ 08.699 , E035◦ 26.248 ). Vezirkopr The average annual temperature is 10.6◦ C, the average annual precipitation is 427 mm, and the relative air humidity is 30%∼40%. During the experiments, minimal and maximal temperatures ranged from 12 to 23 and 27 to 36◦ C, respectively. The soil used in the pots was collected from the top soil (0–20 cm - meadow burozem) of the garden whose pH is 6.55, electrical conductivity is 121 μs cm−1, and the total N, P, K and OM are 2.1%; 0.19%; 0.41%; 1.67%, respectively. The air dried soil samples were homogenized and sieved through a 4 mm mesh sieve and placed plastic pots with a diameter of 20.0 cm and a depth of 15.0 cm, each filled with 4.0 kg soil, artificially mixed with CdCl2 .2H2 O (MerckGermany), Pb(NO3 )2 (Merck-Germany), NiSO4 .6H2 O (J.T. Barker), CuCl2 .2H2 O (Merck-Germany), chemical agents EDTA (Merck-Germany) and TA (Merck-Germany) were designed for the pot-culture experiment in Table 1, then soils in the pots equilibrated for 1 month under open field condition. Following equilibrium, seedlings of a month old Althaea rosea Cavan with the similar size were transplanted into the pots. There were 3 seedlings in each pot, and all treatments were repeated three times in separate pots to minimize experimental errors. The experiments were carried out for five month period. Loss of water was supplemented by using distilled water to sustain 70%∼80% of soil water-holding capacity. The mature plants were harvested and separated into roots, stem and leaves. The separated parts were then used for the analysis of accumulated trace metals. Determination of Trace Metals Harvested plants were thoroughly washed with tap water and then with distilled water in order to remove dust and soil particles. The clean parts were dried in an oven at 105◦ C for 30 min and then at 75◦ C for 2 days. Dried plant samples were ground into fine powder and their dry weights were measured. Microwave wet digestion technique was used in the preparation of the plant samples for the analysis. The concentration of

Data Analysis Bioconcentration factor (BCF) is the ratio of metal concentration in plant roots or shoots to that in the soil. Translocation factor (TF) is defined as the ratio of metal concentration in plant shoots to that in plant roots. BCF and TF are generally used to evaluate the capacity of plants to accumulate trace metals. All the data from the experiment were statistically analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and student’s ttest both at α = 0.05 level. Calculations were performed by R statics tools of MS Excel . The data were presented as mean ± SD (standard deviation).

Result and Discussion Effects of Trace Metals on Plant Growth Following the five month period, the effect of trace metals and used chemical agents on the growth of Althaea rosea Cavan are presented in Table 2. The results show that when plants exposed to low concentrations of trace metals, biomass of roots, stems, and leaves increased continuously. Between 0 and 50 mg kg−1 heavy metal exposure levels Althaea rosea Cavan exhibits no visual injury symptoms and there were no significant differences in root, stem and leaf biomass and maximum root length. Two-way ANOVA has been carried out to see if there is a significant difference between metal species (columns) and type of complexing agents (rows) in Table 2. p < 0.05 in rows shows that there is no remarkable difference between metal species at C1, C2 and C3 concentration levels, but p > 0.05 in columns indicates that results without agent, with EDTA and with TA remarkably different from each other except higher C3 concentration level. When the concentration of trace metals was over to 50 mg kg−1 chlorosis on the leaves and dark brown spots on the roots were observed. Cd and Pb are non essential and toxic trace metals for plants and effect mitosis in plant cells, slow rate of cell division, and influence plant growth by affecting physiological and biochemical processes. It seems that Althaea rosea Cavan could maintain normal growth up to 50 mg kg−1 heavy metal concentration.

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Table 1. Concentrations of heavy metal ions and chemical agents

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Treatment

Heavy Metal (mg kg−1)

C0 Cd1 Cd2 Cd3 Cd4 ECd1 ECd2 ECd3 TCd1 TCd2 TCd3 Ni1 Ni2 Ni3 Ni4 ENi1 ENi2 ENi3 TNi1 TNi2 TNi3

10 25 50 100 25 25 25 25 25 25 10 25 50 100 25 25 25 25 25 25

Chemical Agent (mmol kg−1)

0.5 1.0 1.5 0.5 1.0 1.5

0.5 1.0 1.5 0.5 1.0 1.5

Treatment

Heavy Metal (mg kg−1)

Pb1 Pb2 Pb3 Pb4 EPb1 EPb2 EPb3 TPb1 TPb2 TPb3 Cu1 Cu2 Cu3 Cu4 ECu1 ECu2 ECu3 TCu1 TCu2 TCu3

10 25 50 100 25 25 25 25 25 25 10 25 50 100 25 25 25 25 25 25

Chemical Agent (mmol kg−1)

0.5 1.0 1.5 0.5 1.0 1.5

0.5 1.0 1.5 0.5 1.0 1.5

E: EDTA, T: TA, C0: Control.

Effects of the addition of EDTA and TA on the growth of Althaea rosea Cavan are also presented in Table 2. Although EDTA was recognized as the most efficient chelant to increase metal uptake of plants, it is phytoxic and has very poor degradability in soil. Therefore, the dry biomass of Althaea rosea Cavan decreased when EDTA is used as chelating agent. However, no obvious effect was observed on the dry biomass of Althaea rosea Cavan by adding TA. It is likely that TA has no clear effect on the growth of Althaea rosea up to 25 mg kg−1 of heavy metal level in soil. This may indicate that TA used plants reach their maximum tolerable heavy metal levels in the shoots than that of the plants without TA. Dry biomasses of plants may also be used to assess tolerance of plants to toxic trace metals.

Concentration of Trace Metals and Accumulation in Plant Tissue The accumulation of trace metals (Cd, Ni, Pb and Cu) in Althaea rosea Cavan for five month period is shown in Figure 1. Trace metals concentrations in roots, stems and leaves of plant increased significantly by increasing heavy metal concentrations in soil. Trace metals were accumulated mainly in the roots, and particular proportion of trace metals was transferred to stems and leaves. Accumulation of trace metals in roots was higher than that of stems and leaves, which is normally observed for hyper accumulator and accumulator plants. Different parts of plants contain different quantities of trace metals and higher ones were observed in roots and

Table 2. Effects of heavy metals and chemical agents on Althaea rosea Cavan dry weight Treatment C0 Cd1 Cd2 Cd3 Cd4 ECd1 ECd2 ECd3 TCd1 TCd2 TCd3 E: EDTA, T: TA.

Dry weight (g pot−1)

Treatment

Dry weight (g pot−1)

Treatment

Dry weight (g pot−1)

Treatment

Dry weight (g pot−1)

6.67 ± 0.47 6.36 ± 0.26 5.89 ± 0.51 5.73 ± 0.34 4.21 ± 0.42 4.22 ± 0.23 2.56 ± 0.17 1.28 ± 0.25 5.64 ± 0.29 5.47 ± 0.37 5.43 ± 0.24

Pb1 Pb2 Pb3 Pb4 EPb1 EPb2 EPb3 TPb1 TPb2 TPb3

6.56 ± 0.33 5.99 ± 0.36 5.81 ± 0.28 5.83 ± 0.34 4.10 ± 0.21 2.69 ± 0.16 1.39 ± 0.29 5.93 ± 0.30 5.86 ± 0.26 5.31 ± 0.32

Ni1 Ni2 Ni3 Ni4 ENi1 ENi2 ENi3 TNi1 TNi2 TNi3

6.69 ± 0.39 6.12 ± 0.33 5.75 ± 0.35 5.34 ± 0.26 4.02 ± 0.29 2.68 ± 0.31 2.08 ± 0.33 5.76 ± 0.25 5.71 ± 0.20 5.62 ± 0.40

Cu1 Cu2 Cu3 Cu4 ECu1 ECu2 ECu3 TCu1 TCu2 TCu3

6.66 ± 0.45 6.45 ± 0.32 6.32 ± 0.49 5.89 ± 0.42 4.56 ± 0.38 2.21 ± 0.34 2.17 ± 0.41 6.29 ± 0.37 6.23 ± 0.44 6.21 ± 0.36

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Fig. 1. Concentration of trace metals in root, stem and leaf of Althaea rosea Cavan.

leaves. This is because trace metals are absorbed by roots from the soil and later translocated to the leaves (through xylem vessels) where they are deposited at vacuoles. Stem is only a traffic way for this journey (Smical et al. 2008). Significant correlations have been obtained (r: 0.9998–0.8299) between root-stem-leaves in all concentration and in all situation. It may be seen from Figure 1 that concentrations of Pb in all tissues of Althaea rosea Cavan were found significantly higher (p < 0.05) than that of the other trace metals. This result agrees

with the findings of Ali et al. (2012). Bioaccumulation depends not only on the characteristics of organism itself, but also on the characteristics of the substance and the environmental factors. However, the trace metals accumulation capacity of the plants can be increased by using supplemental chemicals. Effect of EDTA and TA Addition As can be seen from Figure 2 that addition of EDTA and TA both led to higher metal concentrations in shoots and leaves

Fig. 2. Comparison of trace metals accumulation in each part of Althaea rosea Cavan without chemically agent and under chemically enhanced treatments-EDTA and TA.

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Table 3. Enrichment Coefficients (Bio Concentration factor) and Translocation Factors under different treatments

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Treatment Cd1 Cd2 Cd3 Cd4 ECd1 ECd2 ECd3 TCd1 TCd2 TCd3 Ni1 Ni2 Ni3 Ni4 ENi1 ENi2 ENi3 TNi1 TNi2 TNi3

BCF

TF

Treatment

BCF

TF

17.67 ± 1.47 9.13 ± 0.68 5.71 ± 0.42 3.33 ± 0.36 9.75 ± 0.59 10.80 ± 0.61 11.36 ± 0.60 9.89 ± 0.66 10.92 ± 0.73 11.78 ± 0.69 16.27 ± 0.97 10.43 ± 0.54 7.76 ± 0.51 5.95 ± 0.39 11.79 ± 0.75 12.84 ± 0.78 12.94 ± 0.82 12.47 ± 0.72 12.61 ± 0.76 13.80 ± 0.81

0.97 ± 0.13 0.83 ± 0.09 0.79 ± 0.08 0.82 ± 0.11 1.23 ± 0.14 1.45 ± 0.16 1.57 ± 0.15 1.37 ± 0.11 1.64 ± 0.12 1.70 ± 0.15 1.13 ± 0.12 0.92 ± 0.11 0.86 ± 0.10 0.83 ± 0.11 1.05 ± 0.12 1.24 ± 0.13 1.30 ± 0.14 1.12 ± 0.13 1.39 ± 0.15 1.48 ± 0.15

Pb1 Pb2 Pb3 Pb4 EPb1 EPb2 EPb3 TPb1 TPb2 TPb3 Cu1 Cu2 Cu3 Cu4 ECu1 ECu2 ECu3 TCu1 TCu2 TCu3

30.00 ± 2.17 16.71 ± 1.33 11.92 ± 0.74 7.22 ± 0.51 18.16 ± 1.38 19.34 ± 1.45 20.98 ± 1.52 18.05 ± 1.46 19.93 ± 1.49 20.89 ± 1.54 16.33 ± 1.32 9.43 ± 0.79 7.37 ± 0.60 6.71 ± 0.53 16.07 ± 1.22 17.15 ± 1.26 18.42 ± 1.30 17.79 ± 1.31 20.16 ± 1.47 21.37 ± 1.51

1.36 ± 0.15 1.15 ± 0.13 0.97 ± 0.14 0.88 ± 0.12 1.25 ± 0.16 1.51 ± 0.16 1.64 ± 0.17 1.27 ± 0.13 1.50 ± 0.15 1.73 ± 0.16 1.23 ± 0.14 0.83 ± 0.09 0.84 ± 0.08 0.71 ± 0.08 1.20 ± 1.11 1.42 ± 1.13 1.52 ± 1.14 1.11 ± 1.12 1.58 ± 1.15 1.63 ± 1.16

E: EDTA, T: TA.

as compared to control plants. In this kind of researches, generally the obtained results are compared with the previous EDTA results and besides efficiencies of the metal uptake, additional data such as biodegradability of chelants and the metal leaching potential of the chemicals are used (Grcman et al. 2003; Luo et al. 2005). Despite the useful effects of EDTA in phytoremediation techniques to increase phytoextraction of heavy metals from polluted soil, addition of EDTA could have some limitations. EDTA is reported to have toxic effects on soil microbial and soil enzymatic activities, as well as on cultivated plants (Neugschwandtner et al. 2012). At high levels, EDTA can even disrupt both the physical structure and chemical properties of soils by dissolving mineral components (Shahid et al. 2014). Therefore, as an exogenous substance, EDTA may cause negative environmental effects when applied to soils. There are also typical phytotoxic effects of EDTA, which may be due in response to the increased uptake of metals by plants. The observed EDTA toxicity symptom induced in Brassica juncea and Lolium perenne was a significant decrease in plant biomass (Johnson et al. 2010). Although EDTA was generally more effective in soil metal solubilisation, TA is less harmful to the environment and more efficient in inducing metal accumulation in Althaea rosea Cavan shoots than that of EDTA. The bioavailability of trace metals in soil is influenced by many factors such as organic matter content, cation exchange capacity and particularly pH that is partially influenced by organic acids exudated by plants. Cieslinski et al. (1998) and Nigam et al. (2001) indicated that organic acids had a positive effect on the metal extraction by plants. As in the case of EDTA, the corresponding metal complexes are translocated via xylem from the roots to the shoots. In any type of phytoremediation, the presence of free trace metals is inevitable and potentially toxic to plant cells.

Thus regardless of the type of phytoremediation, chelating of trace metals by any chelating agent would provide an important metal tolerance and accumulation mechanism. Tannins present in TA probably supply abundant metal-chelating hydroxyl groups and they are not harmful for the plants as the fourth of the most abundant metabolite in vascular plants (Kraus et al. 2003) . Moreover, tannins are the precursors of lignin, known as well metal binding compound (Marmiroli et al. 2005) . It is believed that, metal-tannin chelating properties plays important role in the observed phytoremediation.

Enrichment Coefficient (Bioconcentration Factor) and Translocation Factor The enrichment coefficient (BCF) can be used to evaluate the metal accumulation efficiency in plants, and the translocation factor (TF) can be used to evaluate the capacity of the plant to translocate metals from roots to shoots (see Table 3). The BCF values were decreased with increasing heavy metal concentrations in soil. The BCFs in Althaea rosea Cavan under chemical used treatments were always higher than that of without chemical agent at the same conditions. The distribution of metals in shoots and roots of Althaea rosea Cavan was affected by the application of chelate agent. Although both EDTA and TA led to higher values of the TF, TA was clearly more effective than that of EDTA. The TFs for four metals in the presence of chelates were > 1.0. TFs exceeding the critical value (1.0) indicates that these species may take up heavy metal from soil and have the ability to transfer heavy metal from roots to shoots (Zhang et al. 2010). The higher heavy metal contents in stems and leaves based on higher

EDTA and Tannic Acid Enhanced Phytoremediaton by Ornamental Plants BCF and TF values indicate that Althaea rosea Cavan may be accepted as a hyper accumulator for trace metals under the studied conditions by the help of chemicals enhancing phytoremediation. In this study the artificially contaminated soil was used. Generally, the bioavailability of trace metals in artificially contaminated soil is much higher than that of in naturally contaminated soil. Additionally, chelating agent (EDTA/TA) was mixed in the soil together with trace metals before equilibrium, which might further enhance metal availability. Therefore, this study is the first step and only reflects the results of the artificially contaminated soils, in multi-metal containing natural soils, situation could be much more complex.

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Conclusion Using colorful ornamental plants in the remediation of contaminated urban soils has attracted more attention as a beautiful alternative to the other plants in recent years. Althaea rosea Cavan is a popular ornamental plant with higher biomass, deep roots, easy to cultivate. It has wide geographic distribution, remarkable tolerance and hyperaccumulating ability for Cd, Ni, Pb and Cu. Increasing remediation by adding a number of synthetic chelants is also become a well studied technique in the last two decades. Different chelators had different effect on the hyperaccumulating characteristics of different species. In order to increase plant remediation efficiency, in this study, EDTA and TA were used. Both of them enhanced metal accumulation and translocation from the contaminated soils. EDTA was toxic to the species by restraining the growth of the plants. Therefore, dry biomass of plants remarkably decreased when EDTA is used. No obvious dry biomass changes were observed with TA. The wide use of synthetic chelators such as EDTA, EGTA and DTPA create problems such as toxic outcomes into the environment and expensive cost. TA is a plant based chelating agent and no harmful effect on plants. Tannic acid is found more effective as compared with EDTA to enhance phytoremediation ability for Althaea rosea Cavan. However, there is room to lower the cost of the used chemicals. Instead of commercial TA, tea wastes containing high amount of tannins may be used to enhance the phytoremediation.

Funding The work was financially supported by Ondokuz Mayıs University Project Office (No: PYO-FEN 1904.12.008).

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Effect of EDTA and Tannic Acid on the Removal of Cd, Ni, Pb and Cu from Artificially Contaminated Soil by Althaea rosea Cavan.

In this study an ornamental plant of Althaea rosea Cavan was investigated for its potential use in the removal of Cd, Ni, Pb and Cu from an artificial...
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