Effects of dietary zinc depletion on seminal volume and zinc loss, serum testosterone concentrations, and sperm morphology in young men14 Curtiss

D Hunt,

Phyllis

ABSTRACT most

E Johnson,

Identification

sensitive

to zinc

of

depletion

the

would

male reproductive volunteers living

pathology induced on a metabolic ward

ofa

semisynthetie

mixture

ofa

supplemented or 10.4

with

mg Zn/d.

Herbel,

andrological expedite

and

variables

to supply

and

conventional

a total

of

an equilibration

period

of28

serum

exhibited

decreased

testosterone

no change mg Zn/d,

in seminal treatments

total semen imol/ejaeulate). zinc

zinc

loss when

concentrations pletion (28.4

3.4,

4.4,

d (10.4

mg

volumes

vs 2.24

mL)

were vs 32.9,

elevated during 3 1 .0, 34.2, and

Seminal

in young

WORDS

Zinc,

semen,

semen volume, ejaculation magnesium, iron, phosphorus,

testosterone,

sperm.

frequency, sperm density, potassium, sodium

expression the

of a cell

G2 and

M phases

have shown that oral zinc supplementation motility in subfertile men with idiopathic

motility

is apparently

as-

form

is considered

to zinc

an index

of zinc

ofprostatic

in seminal

that

the

zinc that

and coats

1 5). Furthermore.

activity

because

centrations men (16). Because

albumin the

of the

(

secreted

sperm

prostatic

Trichomonas

of zinc

from

and

zinc

may

is readily

vagina/is

in the

prostatic

critical

role

of zinc

in male

short-term

zinc

substudy designed

severe

zinc

deficiency

would

was therefore to assess

is

seems research prostate

protects

have

occur

(12)

semen

the

thereby

that

of possible

and

in humans 14). Other

the

antibacterial killed

fluid

at eon-

of healthy

reproductive

it is important to identify the andrological to zinc depletion. Assessment ofthose

cases

coneen-

function

plasma

I 3). Most secreted prostatic zinc the secreted seminal vesicle proteins

a complex (

unrelated

( 1 1).

function

An andrological man experiment

calcium,

genetic

G2. and

(

tential. sensitive

human,

the

S and

(6-8).

zinc the

indicates cells

1992:56:

to alter S. the

in spermatozoa

Seminal

ical KEY

cycle

( 10). Also,

unknown to target

volume, to short-

Am J C/in Nutr

men.

men

10.4 the

all four phases of zinc de33.6 mmol/L). The findings

and

studies sperm

trations although

phosphorus

testosterone concentrations, seminal zinc loss per ejaculate are sensitive

cell

and

vs 3.8 1 , 4.68, and 5.03 for 9% of total body

was consumed.

required

the G

thenozoospermia and/or oligozoospermia (9). However. the results ofone study indicated that high semen zinc concentrations were related to depressed sperm motility in ejaculates of infertile

and

vs 2 1 .9 nmol/L),

ejaculate (6.29 loss accounted

1.4 mg Zn/d

depletion

(3.30

(26.9

zinc concentrations. Compared with of 1 .4, 2.5, and 3.4 mg Zn/d decreased

loss per Seminal

suggest that serum and total seminal term zinc 148-57.

semen

concentrations

processes

between Several improves

Zn/d), all treatments were presented for 35 d each, the first four in random order and the fifth last. Compared with when they were consuming 10.4 mg Zn/d, volunteers consuming 1.4 mg Zn/d

K Mullen

ofthe

foods

of 1 .4, 2.5.

Loanne the

the diagnosis

by zinc deficiency. Eleven were fed a diet composed

formula

ZnSO4 After

JoLavne

po-

variables most variables in din-

expedite

treatment.

incorporated zinc homeostasis

into

a huduring

depletion.

Introduction Understanding

human

male

infertility

induced

by dietary

zinc

deficiency is complex because zinc is thought to be involved several integrated processes associated with reproduction. Hypogonadism and lack of secondary sexual characteristics have men. mental

been These zinc

reported in several severely abnormalities respondedquickly (1). Clinical

studies

deprived of zinc show that is dependent on adequate evidence that zinc is required pothalamie-pituitary-gonadal is considerable

evidence

that

with

Leydig dietary

adult

undernourished to dietary males

young supple-

experimentally

cell synthesis of testosterone zinc ( 1 ). There is also some

for normal functioning axis (2). On the other zinc

in

deficiency

causes

ofthe hyhand. there primary

tes-

ticular failure and altered testicular steroidogenesis (3). Zinc is required for the G1 (4) and S (5) phases of the cell cycle. Perhaps more importantly. zinc seems to have a role in 148

1,ii J C/in Nuir

From search

Grand

States Forks

Department Human

ofAgriculture. Nutrition

Research

Agricultural Center.

ReGrand

Forks. ND. 2 Presented in part at the Seventh International Symposium on Trace Elements in Man and Animals. Dubrovnik, Croatia, Yugoslavia. May 20. 1990 and at the 1990 North Dakota Academy ofScience Meeting held in Fargo. ND. April 19. 1990. 3 Mention ofa trademark or proprietary product does not constitute a guarantee or warranty of the product by the US Department of Agriculture and does not imply its approval to the exclusion ofother products that may also he suitable. 4 Address reprint requests to CD Hunt. USDA. ARS. Human Nutrition Research Center. P0 Box 7166. University Station. Grand Forks. ND 58202. Received Jul I . I 991. Accepted for publication January 2. 1992.

1992:56:148-57.

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the United

Service.

Printed

in USA.

©

1992 American

Society

for Clinical

Nutrition

ZINC

Subjects

and

DEPLETION

AND

methods

HUMAN 3250

kcal/d)

was L.V/)(’rifllc’ll!a/

dc’sigii

maintained

(±2%) intake. or

28 d (10.4

mg

each.

by prescription

Subjects

supplemented 3.37, 4.43,

Zn/d),

All dietary

in random

were

end

of each

orderand except

periods as ZnSO4.

an oral dose administered,

etary

amount

amount

10.35

were

for

the

35

treatment period

identical zinc

d

and during

supplement,

The

following

eliminated

they

when stable above the

or reduced

administered

day

in proportion

to perturb

daily

to the zinc

intake

as possible.

0800.

period The

and

(approximately

volunteers

samples

every

were

were

divided

collected

2 wk) between

arbitrarily

from

both

into

groups

0630 two

prohibited

and

random

screening

groups,

1 to 2 d apart.

addition, the frequency ofvoluntary and involuntary was recorded daily by each volunteer on a confidential was collected daily. Smoking. alcohol consumption, use were

and In

ejaculations form that and drug

was done

to monitor

compliance. se/ection

Volunteers ical,

and

nutritional

written

and

andrology

on the

data oral

obtained were

function

a consent

statement

sentations

ofthe Dakota

Department

after

from

receiving

the

applicants

both

Board

Studies protocol

volunteer

oral

Review

and

for immalforma-

rotating

from

and study

quantities

nificant

amount

as milk

prewas US

the guidelines

Services

and

the

basal

Hel-

the use ofhuman subjects. All subjects they left the metabolic unit to prevent foods.

diet

supplied

of conventional source provided

sticks

protein

(JT diet

(Table

of 1 .44

mg Zn/d

foods (Table as a semisynthetie

1) and

2). Supplemental

zinc

cycle

providing

9.4-13.5

MJ

was

an additional

L Diet diet

high-protein

based

on

was

provided

as

formula. diet on

energy/d

were used and portion

sparingly: sizes for

and

whipped

low-protein

7-Up

bread

were

weighed

individually mogenous:

into stainless-steel specific amounts

that were covered were served thawed

in the

Bismark,

ND)

per day.

to within

was

served

throughout

West,

allowed

no sig-

were

volunteer,

were

drink

containing

coffee

(Coca-Cola

gum

fruit

foods and

All other

1% accuracy.

served

once each at breakfast, lunch, and rotated daily. It was prepared in bulk,

three

times

a day,

supper, with three flavors with all ingredients weighed

blenders and processed were weighed into glass

and frozen until or semithawed.

until hotumblers

the day of service. Drinks Three servings of the fruit

drink contained 3.46 Mi (826 kcal)(33%), 152 g carbohydrate (39%), 3 1 g protein (53%), 1 1 g fat ( 15%), and 0.22 mg Zn (16%) at 10.5 Mi. The limited

(Table

menu

3): biotin,

was

supplemented

300 tg/d

12 (ER

Sons,

and

Inc.

(iT

as Fergon

Princeton,

York):

NJ);

calcium,

270

mg/

mg ele1.3 mg/ iron,

Chemical

Co.

ferrous

gluconate

of ferrous

lunch, tablets

nutrients New

tablets providing 90 Indianapolis); copper,

brand

in 1 .4-g doses

Inc,

mg thiamin, 0.7 mg riboflaB-6, and 2.0 jzg vitamin B-

Baker

Fe/dose) at breakfast, d as three 500-mg

some

Vitamins,

containing 0.7 0.9 mg vitamin

Squibb

with

(Fneeda

B-complex vitamin, yin, 9.0 mg niacin,

Semen

Glen

Ellyn, elixir,

glueonate

and supper: of magnesium

IL); dispensed

30 into

(providing

10 mg

magnesium, gluconate

85.5 mg/ (Towne)

a 3-d (2250-

Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article-abstract/56/1/148/4715610 by guest on 02 February 2018

lunch

casserole

and

to the

chicken

at dinner

on

cOl/(’cliO?l

is no standardized

procedure

reported

in the

for semen collection for trace element research. semen collection procedures are described below.

literature

Thus, Semen

detailed samples

obtained from staffmembers were used to determine the amount of sample required for all assays and processing times. The most probable sources of mineral contamination of the specimens

penis

was

collection.

formula

Baker, Philipsbung, NJ) added to the was planned as a weighed metabolic

menu

and

primarily

creamer

pepper, by each

of sugarless

ofthe

The

semen

an average

diet

derived.

consisted

and

low energy Salt,

selected

Up to 0.95 four

There

University ofthe

followed

Human

written protocol

of the

were

starch products, refinedbeverage prepared from

substitutes,

ofseveral ofzine.

amounts,

added to the day three.

signed

Committee

the diet

27 to 39 g. Nondairy

used

limited

desquamitized Therefore,

egg white ZnSO4 The

ofzinc, low-protein a high-protein

10.5-Mi

levels

served separately at breakfast, lunch, and supper; and potassium, 314 mg once every 3 d as 0.30 g KCI (IT Baker, USP grade)

urinary infections, or inadequate

each The

The

of Health regarding when

of unauthorized

composed protein

sources

The

energy

and gluten-free pasta replaced traditional breads and noodles. In addition to the basal diet, volunteers were allowed to consume

beverages

written

Diet The

were

mg/d

examinations

by anatomical

research.

Human

psycholog-

a separate

to screen

selection,

Institutional and

Department

ingestion

physical

Data used

ofthe

of Agriculture.

Doctrine chaperoned

from

caused

12). After

(

nature

by the

ofNorth

of medical,

varicocele, surgery, mumps, hernia, bilateral eryptorchidism,

or virilization

approved

basis

questionnaires.

questionnaire

tion, vasectomy, venereal disease,

sinki were

selected

andrological

of the

ranged

topping

d as CuSO4

were

and

libido

intervals.

other

d as three l-g calcium gluconate mental Ca each (Eli Lilly and Co.

I ‘()/unteer

paired

which

Grains and animal products was the only meat served,

chicken

ingredients

isotopes basal di-

(250-keal)

from

dietary

the egg white. chicken breast

and

were

1 .0-Mi

baseline

constant

Under the conditions described below, each volunteer provided semen samples at the beginning, middle, and end of each treatment

at

149

offruits, juices, vegetables, carbohydrate desserts, and

study.

period.

zinc

for

mg/d

were

of 1 mg 70Zn. On days other zinc supplements

ofstable

as little

except

in below)

of 1.44, 2.45, period of

equilibration

Diets

to was

adjustments

(described

presented

the the

selected weight

(to be reported separately). subjects with 4 mg stable 67Zn 10 d before

dietary

given were

were

double-blinded.

treatment provided

and diet

a mean total an equilibration

all treatments

For stable-isotope studies were infused intravenously the

exercise

fed a basal

treatments

the last period all dietary which was

were

with ZnSO4 to supply 10.35 mg Zn/d. After

the first four

last.

the

To minimize

Eleven men (28. 1 ± 5.0 y of age. . ± SD) were live on a metabolic ward for 208 d. Initial body energy

ANDROLOGY

risk ofreducing

were

mineral

epithelia, a nonlubnieated, chosen

as the

Mineral sperm

leaching

from

glass

hair, and unapproved nonspermicidal condom most

integrity motility,

appropriate

of the

method

sample

was

a phenomenon

containers, lubricants. over the for

preserved observed

semen at the to occur

during even brief contact of sperm with latex. To select a condom brand, six condoms from a given brand were unrolled inside out and placed in a 14-mL, acid-washed polypropylene

tube

(Beeton-Diekinson

Labware,

Lincoln

Park,

150

HUNT

TABLE 1 Three-day rotating

ET

AL

menu Day

I

Day 2

Breakfast

Cranapple juice Cornflakes4 Nondairy creamer Peaches Orange fruit drink

Orange juice Corn Chext Nondairy creamer Blueberries Lemon fruit drink

Apple juice Trixj Nondairy creamer Cherries Orange fruit drink

Lunch

Orange juice Chicken-vegetable casserole Rusks Butter Cherry Jello with pineapple Lemon fruit drink

Apple juice Barbecued chicken Anellini noodles. buttered Steamed cauliflower Strawberry/banana Jello Whipped topping Tropical fruit drink

Grape juice Chicken-potato bake Rusks Butter Apple crisp Lemon fruit drink

Dinner

Apple juice Crispy chicken Ditalini noodles, butteredt Lettuce salad Russian dressing Shortbread cookies Tropical fruit drink

Pineapple juice Chicken-vegetable Lettuce salad French dressing Rusks Butter Cherry crisp Orange fruit drink

Orange juice Baked chicken White bun Lettuce salad French dressing Angelfood cake Tropical fruit drink

Lemonade Angel food cake Whipped topping

Vanilla wafers Applesauce

Snack

Day 3

soup

Lime Jello with pears Whipped topping

Kelloggs, Battle Creek, MI. t Ralston Purina Co. St Louis. 4

t Plada, Milan, Italy. § General Food Corp.

NJ)

that

contained

L KH2PO4

buffer

4-mL

as the

in detail

Plains,

NY.

ofphosphate

was selected

eral content and pH analyzed for mineral plasma speetroscopy as described

White

buffer.

to partially

The

simulate

0.0038-mol/

semen

Wallace,

mm-

(7.4). After 24 h the undiluted buffer was content by inductively coupled argon (ICP/5000; Perkin-Elmer, Norwalk, CT) elsewhere

(18).

The

phosphate

buffer

served

condoms

from

one lot

blank.

On the basis of a single Yl3069-03:

brand

of the mineral (Trojans

distributed

analyses, rolled

by Carter

latex

condoms,

Products,

number

Division

75,

of Carter-

Inc.

condoms, tested

of the high-protein

fruit drink4

Food

Tang, orange flavored, powdert Lemonade powdered, sweetened Tropical Punch, Kool-Aid, sweetened powdert Water, deionized Egg white, frozen, thawed Nondairy creamer. unsaturated fatty acid, frozen 4 For the lO.5-MJ energy intake. Subjects or Kool-Aid. t Kraft General Food Inc, White Plains,

thawed

received

lemonade,

York)

to the selected

trations

below

condoms Chaska, Corp.

content. provided

Bedford,

nonlubnicated

latex

pylene

a stopwatch:

bottle:

Amount

g/serving

The integrity ofthe semen port to the clinical laboratory,

45.00 45.00 45.00 60.00 100.00 35.00 punch.

NY.

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thiness expended

and

marked volunteer.

diligence to ensure

research

were and

with

protocol.

The

box

toweling:

two

widemouth

a questionnaire.

the unique

that

eon-

packaged, polypro-

The

box

identification

sample, up until was dependent

on the goal

and

number

the time of transon the trustworgreat effort was For instance, to minimize In addition, ofthe

false all

andrology

of mierocontamination.

Each volunteer was given group and individual settings collection

paper

briefed

(Softsoap,

a squeeze-bottle of System, Super-Q,

protocol was designed psychological factors.

thoroughly

the concept

and

aliquots in coneen-

a styrofoam

of the volunteer. Thus, a high degree of compliance.

the andrology reporting reports stemming from volunteers

minerals handsoap

a 30-mL and

all contents were assigned to each

All buffer

handsoap: Millipore

MA):

selected

opened

MN) and paper toweling Roswell, GA) were selected

with

condoms:

ofthe

12 was

above. Liquid

bottle of liquid 18 M Q em’:

Corp.

of

contained

limits.

Enterprises, Inc. Kimberly-Clark,

a plastic (deionized.

On receipt

package

as described

detection

on the basis of mineral Each volunteer was tamed water

selected.

in each

residue

exposed Softsoap (Kimwipes.

were

condom

for mineral

Millipore TABLE 2 Composition

New

one

detailed oral and a written

volunteers

were

instructions in both guide for the semen asked

to refrain

from

ZINC TABLE 3 Composition

DEPLETION

AND

HUMAN was

of the diet for the l0.5-MJ

energy

intake4

Calculated values Energy (MJ) Protein (g) (% ofenergy) Carbohydrate (g) (% ofenergy) Crude fiber, (g) Fat (g) (% ofenergy) Linoleic acid (g) Total saturated fatty acids (g) P:St Cholesterol (mg) Vitamin A (RE) Thiamin (mg4 Riboflavin (mg4 Niacin (mg) Ascorbic acid (mg) Vitamin B-6 (mg4 Vitamin B-12 (;zg4 Folacin (pg) Vitamin D (jig) a-Tocopherol (mg) Biotin (ig) Analyzed values Potassium (mg4 Phosphorus (mg) Calcium (mg4 Iron (mg)f Magnesium (mg4 Zinc (mg)II Copper (mg) Manganese (mg) Sodium (mg4

10.5

supplement. safe and adequate

ejaculation

washed The

(tap penis

water), only

was

48 h before rinsed,

and

cleaned

which

ofthe indicated

corded

the

from

the

packaging,

inspected

for

top ofthe

condom

nated.

The

stopwatch

folded

back

around

onto the bottle of the ejaculate was

then

turned

ofhours

the

since

tip ofthe

receipt,

the

the

last voluntary

ejac-

was cut

polypropylene Elapsed time rupture,

mineral

and

and

the

tube was

for re-

every

preparation

phase

described

ofelapsed

all samples

time

were

and

within

inspected

I mm

visually

after

for clots

condom and

(20

zL)

spray.

was The

transferred smear

xanthene,

and

Scientific

to a glass

was air-dried: thiazine

Products,

ming

at 5 and

(S/P

30 mm

angiotensin

nation.

and

scribed

below).

stain; sperm

at room temperature with a vortex mixer assays

were

following

order:

1) 1000

y in

(Lab Source, activity was pared

L

1 500-ML

as described

were

provided. in the

rolled

on and

ofthe

bottle.

care being taken lost or eontamithe technical

staff

Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article-abstract/56/1/148/4715610 by guest on 02 February 2018

with

hyde: 5 g sodium was rocked for

transferred

to a glass by visual taken for

activity

(ACE)

remaining

detenmi-

analysis

specimen

with

plastic

for mineral

pipette

analysis

microcentrifuge

gently for the

tips

was

tube

done

last

in the

transferred

with

screweap

below;

3)

100

ML was

used

for

histological

below): 4) 200 zL was used for determination that is acidic and rich in cystine (SPARC); for semen smear, prepared as above; and 6)

sperm

diluent

solution

to avoid

Bright (19).

specimen

vidual

the following

smear, and

assays, 0-mm

sperm

density,

microscopy,

priority

to a 1:

formalde-

deionized transferred

water) to a

with

glass.

Data

from

be reported later. When the was inadequate for all mdiprotocol

motility, 30-mm

37%

The

Line, improved Neubauer, Cambridge Instruments, Inc. The sperm-density procedure contact

SPARC assays will of specimen volume

analysis,

(1 mL

bicarbonate; 100 mL distilled, 3 mm in a pipet shaken, then

the ACE and total amount eral

(de-

to liquefy

stored at -80#{176}C:2) 100 ML for acrosin to a 5-mL polypropylene tube and pre-

hemocytometer (Spencer, I/to mm deep, Reichert-iung, Buffalo, NY) for counting was

set,

and assessed sample was

for histological

the

removed

Chieago)and transferred

analysis (described of secreted protein 5) 20 .iL was used

characteristics

for 30 mm, the sample was mixed (Scientific Products) and aliquots

following

to a polypropylene

Staining

staining

was

taken

allowing

hair-

and covered with a covenslip. motility (% vigorously swim-

enzyme

was

dried

triarylmethane,

Differential

a eoverslip 3) A l00-zL

converting

with

with

to give

posteollection)

4) A sample After

coated

Diff-Quik

slide that was covered with analysis with a microscope. sperm

slide

dip-stained

Minneapolis)

similar to a Wnight-Giemsa 2) A 20-tL sample to assay

and

the outside

gross

integrity. Then aliquots for all the following assays were removed with plastic pipette tips in the following order: 1) A semen smear

condom was provided The collection was to

with great was either

in-

collection

from the metabolic by the technical staff.

condom

condom and

in assessing

to reschedule

processing

5 mm

rupture.

be achieved without any lubricating substance. After a single ejaculation. the condom with ejaculate was placed in the widemouth bottle in an upright position with the The lid was screwed so that no portion

staff

the need

biochemical,

samp/e

Within

encouraged to was removed

imperfections,

completely onto the erect penis. A second in ease of imperfection or contamination.

number

for specimen

Semen

provided

were condom

kit

below.

Hands

the materials

materials

andrology kit. Uncircumcised individuals take special cleaning precautions. The

andrology

< 10 ML for sperm-density measurements was transferred glass white blood cell diluting pipet (Scientific Products).

collection.

with

technical

and/or

on receipt.

of histological,

(17).

the

the

specimen,

Immediately

2077 [2000] 570 [800] 514 [800] 40 [10] 218 [350] 1.36 [15] 1.80 [l.5-3.0]11 1.32 [2.0-5.0]1 1949 [500] II

dried with

entire

aided

Card,

ejaculate was expressed into a graduated the determination of ejaculate volume.

74 27 20.1 22.8 0.89 86 1632 [1000] 1.52 [1.5] 2.29 [1.7] 23.1 [19] 420 [60] 2.07 [2.0] 3.22 [2.01 449 [200] 10 [5] 4.27 [10] 300

semen

the

Data

20 dilution voluntary

to retrieve

ulation. Each andrology kit was transported ward to the clinical laboratory in < 2 mm

393 64 204

intake

by telephone

refrigerator in the bathroom. The volunteer to fill out a seven-item confidential Andrology

and

4 Recommended dietary allowances (17) for males aged 25-50 brackets. t Ratio of polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acids. :1:Includes supplement. § Estimated minimum requirement for healthy persons (17).

II Without #{182} Estimated

notified

from the two-way was also instructed tegnity

58 [63] 9

151

ANDROLOGY

was observed: 5-mm

microscopy,

mm-

smear,

30-mm

ACE,

aerosin,

SPARC.

Biochemica/

anaIicis

On the same day as collection, each aliquot for acrosin was layered on 1 1 % Ficoll (F-9378; Sigma Diagnostics,

analysis St Louis)

152

HUNT

in a 5-mL

at 12000 washed stored

polypropylene

at -80#{176}C. At the

at room

temperature

standard

after

j ugated

(radioimm

Carson,

or among

pellet

samples

was

thawed

for aerosin blood

between

and total

semen

collected

aerosome,

at 0 and

and

Ejacu/atc’

System

concentrations

30 mm

postacrosomal

were

areas:

analyzed

reveal

sperm-head

by the

tangents

any

is the

ened

to its boundary: where

maximum

to the

length

dimension of a piece

feature], and sperm-head eter). All measurements ods (22) with with Chalnicon

as the

of the

aerosome

midpieee

portion

Minera/

the

X Feret

direction:

pulled

tight

head

anterior

around

l000-iL

the

termine

described

Statistica/ The

Ine,

activity, sperm pect ratio, and sures analysis

Los

border

of the

flagellar

analysis

were

allowed

to

Shuler

and (18).

zinc

eoneen-

All subaliquots

Friedman

data test

Mineral

were

(BMDP,

analyzed

BMDP

Statis-

concentration,

aerosin

aenosome area, sperm-head area, sperm-head assperm density were analyzed by repeated-meaof variance (ANOVA) followed by Dunnett’s SAS Institute, Inc, Cary, NC) between period (1 .4, 2.5, 3.4, or 4.4 mg Zn/

d) and

dietary

the

zinc-adequate

collected

at the

end

period

of each

(10.4

dietary

mg

period

Zn/d). are

Only

described

here.

For

ofsa,np/e each

integrity

volunteer,

of any

of the

there samples

and comp/iance was

no indication was

did

not

each

required

ejaculation

of abstinence.

an

Seven

increased

zinc-deficient

from

that

dietary

periods.

period

was

throughout

were of the

The

differ

the

compromised

that

the

mineral

as calculated

Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article-abstract/56/1/148/4715610 by guest on 02 February 2018

included

obligatory

three

of semen

the

by

other

and

concentrations

also

exhibited were

ofealcium,

in descending

per

3.4,

or 4.4)

tended

per same

four

total

ejaculation

=

of

dietary

volunteer

volunteers

re-

with

the

period.

a slight

elevated

and

200].

during

Semen

all phases

phosof zinc

were elevated during depletion. The semen

and

zinc

minerals element

were

not affected

analyzed, in human

by phosphorus, of zinc

semen

zinc

(

loss

also

differed

10.4-mg

Zn/d

sodium semen,

potassium,

1 .4, 2.5, per

between

semen P

semen

or 3.4

ejaculate.

dietary

with the decreased P < 0.007:

Total

total

for elevated

5).

was fol-

calcium,

iron.

vs 57.3 imol/ejaeulate: the 10.4-mg treatment, to decrease

10.4 mg Zn/d, concentrations

tendency

(Table

potassium,

order

zinc, magnesium, and Reduced consumption loss

number

the previous 10.4-mg Zn/d

corresponded

magnesium

by the dietary treatment. Ofthe found to be the most abundant

78.3 with

and

hand, that

per dietary

of semen

the

with seminal All andrology the

the

depletion. Serum sodium concentrations certain phases (2.5 or 4.4 mg Zn/d) ofzine

creased

con-

content

concentrations

lowed

while

and

with when they were consuming consuming I .4 mg Zn/d had elevated iron

reported

of ejaculations

at times

collections

,ninera/

Compared volunteers

On only

to de-

volunteers

collection the 1.4-

contributed

study.

collection

calculated

of abstinence

number

consistently

of

between

(56 vs 48; 96 vs 72; 72 vs 48; and

are

largest

over

number

between the 1.4 and 10.4 mg 288, 288, or 336 h); four vol-

period

diet

individual

ejaculations

(RMSE)

Evidence

between

previous

elements. Thus, compared the 1 .4-mg Zn/d treatment vs 14.6 jzmol/ejaculate:

Results

integrity

recent

elapsed hours between the required ejaculation was the same in both

comparisons (SAS/STAT: each zinc-deficient dietary data

most

concentrations

Angeles).

+ involuntary)

except

volume the

because

ejaculation-frequency by the

Software,

Furthermore,

data

posterior

phorus

nonparametrically tical

0.05).

Effects of dietary zinc depletion on seminal volume and zinc loss, serum testosterone concentrations, and sperm morphology in young men.

Identification of the andrological variables most sensitive to zinc depletion would expedite the diagnosis of male reproductive pathology induced by z...
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