( Continued from

page 183. J

Drs. J. Father, W. B. Beatson, and J. Ewart, Professor of Physiology.?July 23r(l, 1870. Experiment No. 1.?A iull-gruwn pariah dog was bitten in


thigh by a full-grown and vigorous cobra, of the variety by the snake men, Kurees Keautiah. Two table-spoonsful of Mr. Otlia Alexander's fluid antidote Were poured down the dog's throat immediately after tho bite, which was inflicted at 12-18 p.m., and the vegetable extract or paste made into the consistence of honey with Liquor Ammonia, was well rubbed into the wound, and over a large surface round it. the


October 1,



This so-called antidote was sent to India by Mr. Otho Alexander of Cephalonia, and the samples experimented with, were sent to me for experiment by His Excellency the \iceroy. The

following are

Mr. 0. Alexander's

instructions, which

were care-

fully followed:?

are to be nsed in the following manner :?As possible after the infliction of the bite two table-spoonilie fuls of the liquid should be administered, ointment, said to be Venetian treacle, having been reduced with Liquor Ammonia to the consistence of thick honey, should then be rubbed forcibly into the wound over a large surface, and from the bite downwards, and this should be repeated several times nntil a absorbed. After the lapse of three quantity of the ointment is be again given, and the friction or four hours the fluid should repeated, but with less force. The fluid is a clear liquid like water, the paste has very much "

The antidotes

soon as

the appearance of extract of Conium or Ilyoscynmus, with a somewhat resinous smell. 12-19 p.m.?The dog limped on the bitten leg, and seemed restless and uneasy. 12-26.?Retching. 12-30.?Very restless:

breathing hurried. profuse defecation.

12-31.?Vomiting. 12-33.?Staggering; 12-34.?Convulsed; diarrhoea; rises, stag-

gers, and falls over in convulsions. 12-35?Violent convulsions. 12-37.?Perfectly paralysed; heart still beats; no respiration. 12-38.?Dead?in twenty minutes after the bite. The blood on

removal from the great vessels coagulated firmly a few minutes after death. Experiment No. 2.?A full-grown pariah dog was bitten in the thigh by a large spectacled cobra (Koyah Gokurrali of the snakemen) at 12-37 p.m. Two table-spoonsful cf the fluid were poured down the dog's throat immediately after the bite. 12-40. ?Breathing hurriedly ; restless. 12-50.?Restless and uneasy; the paste well rubbed into the wounds and neighbouring parts,

according to the instructions. 12-52.?Convulsed; rises, walks with a staggering gait, and falls. Another dose of the fluid administered. 12-54.?Violently convulsed. 12-55.?Paralysed, cannot rise. 12-57.?Heart stiil beats, respiration has ceased. 12-58.?Dead?in twenty-one minutes. Blood coagulated firmly

after death. Experiment No. 3.?A young spectacled cobra, three feet in length, was bitten fiercely in three places in the body by a fullof the variety, called grown, powerful, fresh and vigorous cobra the snakemen, Bansbunniah Keauteah, at 12-27 p.m. The 60cn

by fangs were deeply imbedded, and the poison must have been .thoroughly inoculated. At 2-20 p.m. on the following day, the young cobra was as active as ever, evidently not in the least affected by the poison. I selected a small cobra to be bitten by a large one in order .that the effects of the poison might be felt with the greatest force, should it have any at all. Experiment No. 4.?A Bungarus Fasciatus, five feet in in two places by a very large, fresh, length, was bitten deeply and vigorous cobra (Tentuliah Keauteah), five feet six inches be no doubt of There could the in length, at 12-30 p.m. with difficulty. soveritv of the bite, for it was disengaged At 2-20 p.m. on the following day, nearly twenty-six hours, the Bungarus was perfectly well, and not in the least affected by the poison.* Experiment No. 5.?A fowl had twenty drops of the blood of the dog poisoned by a cobra in Experiment No. 1, injected with the hypodermic syringe into each thigh, at 12-42 p.m. 12-50.?Crouching. 12-55.?Crouching; feathers ruffled. 1-5.? Sluggish, eyes closed; is drowsy. 1-30.?Stands with head .depressed; feathers staring; eyes closed; very drowsy. 2. Very drowsy; head drooping. After this the fowl slowly recovered ; and on Monday, 24th, was quite well. The poison cobra bite had become a It is doubtftil whether death was not caused by the wound independent!/ of the poison. *


snake died

putrid wound


the third day.

which hud




in this experiment must have been infinitesimal in quantity; only 40 drops of the blood of a full-grown dog poisoned by a cobra, -were injected. The symptoms of poison were well the bird ultimately recovered. Experiment No. 6.?A solution of one part of cobra poison to eight parts of Liquor Potas. was prepared by Dr. Ewart,

marked, though

injected into a fowl's thigh at looking deposit caused by the mixture of the fluids. 1a.m.?Drooping. 1-2.?Crouching; head falling over; nearly paralysed. 1-4.?Convulsed. 1-7.? Dead?in seven minutes, with all the symptoms of cobra poisoning. This experiment appears conclusive : eight parts of Liquor Potas. did not neutralize the effects of one part of the poison. Experiment No. 7.?A fowl was bitten by a fresh cobra in the thigh at 1-2 p.m. 1-3.?No convulsions. 1-4.?Dead?in and of this nine

12-57 p




There was a floculent

two minutes. Experiment No. 8.?Twenty drops of the blood of the abovementioned fowl, removed immediately after death, injected into either thigh of a fowl at 1-10 p.m. 1-30.?Sluggish. 2-15.? Sluggish. 4-10.?Drowsy; head falls over. 4-20.?No convulsions. 7-15.?Dead?in six hours and fifteen minutes. Blood removed from the body, coagulated firmly after death. This

quite snake

question of the blood of an animal killed by poison being itself poisonous. In this case it proved fatal

settles the

in six hours and ten minutes. In the case where the blood of a dog poisoned by a cobra was injected, the bird also showed marked evidences of poisoning; though the dilution of the poison must have been very great in

the blood of so large an animal as a dog; only 40 drops of the blood was used in each experiment. Experiment No. 9.?A full-grown cobra (Bansbunniah

Keautiah) was bitten twice, very strongly, by a full-grown and vigorous cobra (Tentuliah Keautiah), at 1-15 p.m. No evil consequences followed. The snake was perfectly well next day.* Experiment No. 10.?A fowl was bitten in the thigh by a Bungarus Cceruleus (krait), at 1-22 p.m. 1-24.?Feathers staring; eyes have a fixed glaring stare. 1-25.?Stretches out the neck; falls over; point of beak resting on the ground. 1-26.?Convulsed; puncture in thigh ecohvmosed and osdematous. 1-29.?Dead?in seven minutes. Blood coagulated firmly in four minutes after death. This experiment shows the deadly nature of this little snake, which is apparently more so than its large congener, the BungaThis experiment also proves that the coagulation rus Fasciatus. of the blood is not prevented after death.

11.?A cat was bitten in the thigh by a at 1-46 p.m. Mr. O. Alexander's antidote and extract were administered, according to his instructions, immediately. 1-47 p.m.?Pupils widely dilated; cat lies Experiment No.


(Tentuliah Keautiah),

stretched out; hurried breathing. 1-41.?Convulsed. 1-52.?? Paralysed; heart still beats, no respiration. 1-55.?Dead?in nine minutes. This cat was on a former occasion bitten by a no sign of poisoning. large Bungarus Fasciatus, and showed The blood on removal from the body a few minutes after death,

coagulated firmly.

Experiment No. 12.?A fowl was bitten in the thigh by a large Bungarus Fasciatus, at 1-44 p.m. 1-54.?Drooping ; head, cannot stand. 2 p.m.?? falling forwards. 1-58.?Convulsed, Convulsive movements; there is a peculiar vocal sound as though the thorax were compressed. 2-5.?Convulsed. 2-10.?Dead?in twenty-six minutes. Blood removed from the body coagulated firmly in a few minutes after death. Experiment No. 13.?A young rat was bitten in the thigh by Insensible immediately. Dead at 2 p.m. a Bungarus Cooruleus, ia thirty seconds. Blood coagulated firmly in four minutes. (To be continued.)

the ribs.




found dead 5

days later.

Experiments on Snake Poison.

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