First direct bonding in orthodontia George V. Newman, DDS West Orange, N.J. I n the September 1990 AJO issue, an article by H. I. Cueto was published entitled "A little bit of history: The first bonding in orthodontia." The author stated that "In 1966 in the Orthodontic Department of the Eastman Dental Center, a direct-bonding technique was developed and used for the first time on several patients." On page 262 of this same JOURNAL under References, one reads: 1. Newman GV. Epoxy adhesives for orthodontic attachments. A progress report. AM J ORTHO 1965, 51:901-12. It is unfortunate that such an inconsistency is present in our JOURNAL.

Figs. 1 and 2. These brackets (laminates) were bonded on this patient in 1955. Cold-cure acrylic laminates were made on the central incisors of the patient's models. Plexiglas brackets were formed with separating disks from plexiglas rods, The brackets were polymerized onto the laminates. The acrylic laminates containing the brackets were bonded to the incisors with epoxy. The conditioning agent (acid etch) was 40% phosphoric acid applied for 1 minute. The incisors were retracted by crimping an 0.012-inch arch wire. Note the reduction of the anterior protrusion. Treatment time was 6 months. This may have been the first laminate now extensively used in general dentistry. I reported this case in the AJO in 1965.


To set the record straight, I am enclosing photographs of some early bonding attempts. I have been acid etching (conditioning) and bonding teeth since 1950. The adhesives were primarily the acrylic type, and the acid etch varied from 40% to 50% phosphoric acid. In the late 1950s I started using epoxy-type adhesives and developed a technique for rapidly bonding epoxies onto teeth. However, professional acceptance was poor, bonding was tedious, and some patients had allergic reactions to the epoxies. We continued to research bonding at the Newark College of Engineering in 1963. We tried and discarded the use of ceramic brackets in 1965. Of course, it has been recently improved. The article in the reference was sent to Dr. Pollock, then the editor of the AJO in 1962. It was sent back to me a few times, and it was finally published in 1965. I was bonding with epoxy-acrylates (our present day no-mix adhesives) in 1969 and found it worked particularly well for metal brackets. I had previously published an article on bonding brackets in the New Jersey State Dental Journal in 1964. It was originally written in 1960. One of the earlier adhesives (circa 1960) we tested was Eastman 910; however, it was found to be too water sensitive. I acid etched with Ames black copper cement liquid, which is 50% phosphoric acid in 1950. Acid etching

Fig. 3. Laminate-brackets bonded 1o maxillary incisors. The adhesive was an acrylic type (EPAC). Notice mandibular canines fully covered with metal on labial to prevent decalcifications. The yellowish color was my attempt to simulate tooth color by adding yellowish powder colorants to the acrylic base. These brackets were bonded in 1956.

Voh~me 10l Number 2

v w~Womt

1 91

Fig. 6. In 1958 1 welded screen mesh on the back of stainless steel band material and bonded these brackets with an epoxy adhesive on the maxillary incisors. (I tried cyanoacrylates in the early 1950s but was unsuccessful. The etchant was 40% phosphoric acid for 1 minute.

Fig. 4. Bonded acry}ic laminates containing brackets polymerized onto laminates. Brackets were carved by hand from either ptexiglas or polycarbonate rods. The adhesive was EPAC, coldcure acrylic-type adhesive. The incisors were treated with 40% phosphoric acid for 1 minute. These brackets (laminates) were bonded in 1957.

Fig. 7. These brackets were bonded in 1958. The maxillary central incisors were "cut-out" (shaped) from a rod of polycarbonate. The right canine had screen mesh welded to the band material. I tried a filler (fused quartz) with this epoxy adhesive. Note the excess adhesive on the gingival of the bracket. The central incisors were bonded with EPAC (acrylic adhesive). The etchant was 50% phosphoric acid for 1 minute.

Fig. 5. In 1956 one of my first attempts to bond metal brackets to teeth was when I bonded the maxillary left central incisor in this photo. Fine screen mesh was welded to the back of the laminate. Since I wanted to improve the esthetics, I baked (cured) an epoxy adhesive colored with titanium dioxide onto the arch wire and bracket. However, after 3 weeks it began to peel. The incisor was retracted by ligating the soldered tie-back. The adhesive was an epoxy, and 40% phosphoric acid for 1 minute was employed as the etchant.

(surface treatment) has been used in industry since the advent of adhesives in the 1940s and I950s. Acid etching is and was not new or novel to industrial adhesive chemists. Bis-GMA was first used and introduced by

industrial chemists at Shell Chemical Company (circa 1960). I believe it was called EPON 12. In fact, I bonded screen-mesh metal brackets to patients in the late 1950s and early 1960s. We made our own screen-mesh brackets. Since that time, other researchers have contributed to the advancement of modern-day adhesive bonding systems. Acceptance of bonding brackets was not evident until the late 1970s in orthodontics. I am sure that several other research orthodontists were researching adhesive systems concurrently. Nevertheless, I think I was one of the first to engage in bonding brackets, and 1 am still working on perfecting my adhesive system. Let's get the bonding record straight (as an arch wire).

First direct bonding in orthodontia.

First direct bonding in orthodontia George V. Newman, DDS West Orange, N.J. I n the September 1990 AJO issue, an article by H. I. Cueto was published...
1MB Sizes 0 Downloads 0 Views