Brief Det~nitive Report
IN POLYMORPHONUCLEAR BY Y. RIKIHISA
From the Department of Anatomy, Harvard Medical School, and the Department of Microbiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 Because rickettsiae proliferate exclusively in the c y t o p l a s m o f the host cells, rickettsial invasion into the host cell c y t o p l a s m is an essential step in rickettsial infections. A l t h o u g h this process is i n c o m p l e t e l y u n d e r s t o o d , two possible m e c h a n i s m s t h a t have been suggested are: the phagocytosis o f the rickettsiae b y the host cells followed by their escape from the p h a g o s o m e s (1) or the direct p e n e t r a t i o n o f the rickettsiae t h r o u g h the p l a s m a m e m b r a n e of the host cells (2, 3). Light microscopical studies on the u p t a k e o f the rickettsiae c a n n o t distinguish the p h a g o s o m e - c o n f i n e d rickettsiae from those directly in the host cell c y t o p l a s m as a result o f resolution limitations. T o date, only a few u l t r a s t r u c t u r a l studies in rickettsial e n t r y into host cells have been reported. A n d r e s e a n d W i s s e m a n (3) found that h u m a n p e r i p h e r a l m a c r o p h a g e s w o u l d take up Rickettsia mooseri a n d found t h e m in p h a g o s o m e s a n d in the cytoplasm. However, in their b r i e f report, the process was not described in detail. A recent s t u d y b y E w i n g et al. (4) illustrated the a p p a r e n t in vivo infection cycle of R. tsutsugamushi in mouse p e r i t o n e a l mesothelial cells. B u d d i n g rickettsiae from infected ceils were p h a g o c y t i z e d b y o t h e r mesothelial cells while still enclosed in the original host cell m e m b r a n e . These e n v e l o p e d rickettsiae were then observed to escape from the p h a g o s o m e into the new host cell cytoplasm. T h e present s t u d y takes a d v a n t a g e o f the active a n d a b u n d a n t phagocytosis of R. tsutsugamushi b y p o l y m o r p h o n u c l e a r leukocytes ( P M N ) a n d describes the ultrastructural features o f rickettsial release a n d localization in the host cell cytoplasm. Materials and Methods
Rickettsial Seed Suspensions. The stock of R. tsutsugamushi (Gilliam strain) used in this study was obtained from the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research Washington, D.C. The rickettsiae had been passed 131 times in yolk sacs in a sucrose-potassium glutamate solution (5). This seed material was passed several times in the specific pathogen-free yolk sac of 6- to 7-d embryonated chicken eggs (SPAFAS, Norwich, Conn.) in our laboratory. A 50% suspension of infected yolk sacs was distributed to vials which were quick-frozen in a dry-ice alcohol mixture and stored at -70°C. These seed samples were thawed as needed and used for infecting cultured ceils. Rickettsial Culture. R. tsutsugamushi was propagated serially in monolayers of BHK-21 clone 13 (Lister Institute, London) cells in Falcon (Falcon Labware, Div. of Becton, Dickins, & Co., Oxnard, Calif.) tissue culture flasks (growth area 75 cruZ). They were cultivated in modified Eagle's minimum essential medium with Hank's balanced salt solutions (Grand Island Biological Co., Grand Island, N. Y.) containing 10% heat-inactivated fetal calf serum (Microbiological Associates, Walkersville, Md.) and 50/xg/ml streptomycin. The BHK-21 cells were inoculated with a stock culture of R. tsutsugamushi harvested from chick yolk sacs. After the population of * Supported in part by grant AI 11508 from the U. S. Public Health Service. J. ExP. M ED.© The Rockefeller University Press • 0022-1007/79/09/0703/06 $1.00 Volume 150 September 1979 703-708
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rickettsiae reached a plateau (6-8 d as determined by Giemsa and Gram stains) the cells were incubated with 0.25% trypsin (Microbiological Associates) at 35°C for 5 rain, and harvested by centrifugation at 500 g for 3 min. Aliquots of the infected cells were used to inoculate the serial passages in BHK-21 cells. Infected BHK-21 cells were detached from the culture flask with a rubber policeman, and soon thereafter interacted with the leukocytes. PolymorphonuclearLeukocytes. Polymorphonuelear leukocytes were obtained from 350 to 400 g guinea pigs (Hartley Strain) after intraperitoneal inoculation of 2.4 g sodium caseinate (Tokyo, Kasei., Ltd., Toyoshima, Tokyo) as described by Sbarra and Karnovsky (6). After 14 h, peritoneal fluid which contained 4 × 108 to 109 cells in 20 ml of fluid was withdrawn and the PMN were harvested and washed three times in ice-cold 0.85% NaC1 by centrifugation at 500 g for 3 min at 4°C and filtered through nylon mesh to remove large contaminants. Before incubation with rickettsiae, the PMN were washed once with the incubation medium at 4°C. Incubation of PMN with Rickettsiae. A suspension of 3 X l0Ginfected BHK-21 cells in ~200 /~1 of the modified rubella medium was incubated with 1 × 107 guinea pig peritoneal PMN at 35°C for 30 min before fixation for electron microscopy. The incubation medium was a modification of the rubella medium (Flow Laboratories, Inc., Rockville, Md.). The basic component used was Eagle's minimum essential medium made up with Earle's balanced salt solution (Microbiological Associates). This solution was enriched twofold with nonessential amino acids and the vitamin mixture and 0.2 mM L-glutamine, all from the same source. In addition, the medium contained 10% tryptose phosphate broth (Difco Laboratories, Detroit, Mich.), 10% inactivated fetal bovine serum (Microbiological Associates)," and 0.3% glucose (Fisher Scientific Co., Pittsburgh, Pa.). To complete the medium, 50/tg/ml of streptomycin (Eli Lilly & Co., Indianapolis, Ind.) was added. Electron Microscopy. The specimens were fixed in a solution containing 1.2% wt/vol formaldehyde, 2.5% wt/vol glutaraldehyde (Electron Microscopy Sciences, Fort Washington, Pa.), and 0.03% wt/vol trinitroeresol in 0.05 M cacodylate buffer (pH 7.4), and 0.03% wt/vol CaCI2 (7) at room temperature for 1 h or at 4°C overnight. The cells were washed three times in the 0.2 M cacodylate buffer pH 7.4, fixed in 1% wt/vol OsO4 in 1.5% wt/vol potassium ferrocyanide (8) for 1 h at room temperature. This treatment preserves the glycogen granules in the PMN which are lost if conventional buffered osmium fixation is used. Samples were treated with propylene oxide and embedded in a low viscosity epon mixture of 1,2,7,8-diepoxyoctane (Aldrich Chemical Co., Milwaukee, Wis.) and nonenyl succinie anhydride (Electron Microscopy Sciences, Fort Washington, Pa.) (9). Ultrathin sections (60-90 nm) were cut on a Porter-Blum MT-1 or MT-2 Ultramicrotome (Ivan Sorvall, Inc. Norwalk, Conn.) with a diamond knife, picked up on uncoated copper grids, and stained with a saturated solution of uranyl acetate diluted with equal parts of acetone and then with lead citrate. The specimens were examined in a JEOL 100B or 100S electron microscope operated at 80 kV.
Results Uptake of Rickettsiae by Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes. W h e n heavily infected BHK-21 cells are e x a m i n e d by electron microscopy, most of the cultured cells c o n t a i n a few rickettsiae a n d some have m a n y . I n t r a c e l l u l a r rickettsiae are located w i t h o u t specific localization in the cytoplasm of BHK-21 cells b u t in some cells rickettsiae bulged or p r o t r u d e d from the surface. T r u l y extracellular rickettsiae eneveloped in BHK-21 cell m e m b r a n e were not a p p a r e n t . No u l t r a s t r u c t u r a l evidence of direct egress or entry of R. tsutsugamushi t h r o u g h the BHK-21 cell plasma m e m b r a n e was found in this study. Infected BHK-21 cells centrifuged at low speed formed pellets which c o n t a i n e d infected host cells, partially r u p t u r e d cells with rickettsiae, a n d extracellular rickettsiae in various stages of degeneration. W h e n these infected BHK-21 cell preparations were i n c u b a t e d in a small volume of m e d i u m with the P M N for 30 min, m a n y of the P M N were found to have taken up few or no organisms whereas some c o n t a i n e d several rickettsiae per sectioned cell profile. A b o u t one-half of the rickettsiae in the P M N were still within phagosomes a n d the r e m a i n d e r a p p e a r to have escaped from the phagosome into the host cell cytoplasm (Fig. 1). A l t h o u g h rickettsiae in phagosomes
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and others free in the cytoplasm could be found within the same host cell, it was more common to find rickettsiae within a particular P M N to be localized either in the phagosome or in the cytoplasm. Another characteristic feature of rickettsial phagocytosis is that intact, apparently viable rickettsiae were taken up singly in phagosomes, whereas partially lysed, degenerating rickettsiae were phagocytized in clusters. The phagocytosis of rickettsiae appears to be selective because nonrickettsial debris was excluded from the rickettsia-containing phagosome and there was an apparent preferential uptake of rickettsiae because more rickettsiae than cell debris were found in the P M N (Fig. 1). T h e focal localization of rickettsiae within the P M N is characteristic and fairly consistent. Phagosomes containing rickettsiae were usually found in the ectoplasmic filamentous areas containing vacuoles and lysosomes (Fig. 1). Mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, and ribosomes are rare in these cells. Near the cell center with the Golgi complex and centrioles, free rickettsiae in glycogen areas were observed frequently. Guinea pig P M N contain m a n y glycogen granules which are located in pools and it is in these regions where the extraphagosomal rickettsiae are preferentially localized. These glycogen-rich areas are devoid of other cytoplasmic structures and in routine preparations appear as empty spaces as a result of the dissolution of the glycogen during specimen preparation. In such material the rickettsiae are found in clear, vacuole-like spaces which are not segregated by a m e m b r a n e from the rest of the cytoplasm. With appropriate fixation techniques, the glycogen granules are preserved as characteristic particles --~40 nm in diameter. The free rickettsiae in the glycogen areas retained their bacillary shape and contained a normal array of fine DNA filaments and ribosomes. T h e association of glycogen particles to the surface of the rickettsial cell wall was very close and virtually no recognizable space between the outer surface of the rickettsiae and the tightly apposed glycogen particles could be demonstrated (Fig. 1, inset). Rickettsiae in phagosomes were not found in the glycogen lakes. Phagocytized rickettsiae in a zone adjacent to the glycogen areas were usually enclosed by an intact phagosomal membrane. However, some had phagosomal membranes enclosing rickettsiae which were discontinuous and apparently ruptured. In these examples, glycogen particles were adjacent to the rickettsiae (Fig. 1, inset). Various degrees of disrupted phagosomal membranes were observed. Discussion T h e consistent observation that viable appearing R. tsutsugamushi were phagocytized by P M N selectively by tightly surrounding phagosomal m e m b r a n e suggests that rickettsiae possess some ligands or factors which stimulates their uptake. O u r present observation indicated that rickettsiae can escape from phagosomes and become localized in the glycogen-rich areas of PMN. Some rickettsiae bordering the glycogen areas were found in partially disrupted phagosomes into which glycogen granules appear to have entered. These images suggest the rupture of phagosomal membranes as a result of the presence of rickettsiae, entry of glycogen into the broken phagosomes, and the eventual release of the rickettsiae in the glycogen areas. No images suggesting the direct entry or release of rickettsiae through the intact host cell membrane were found in this study. O u r studies on the phagocytosis and escape of rickettsiae with electron dense tracers (which are in progress) further support this interpretation. The possibility that a rickettsia still enveloped in a host cell m e m b r a n e enters the
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c y t o p l a s m of a n o t h e r cell b y fusion o f the m e m b r a n e o f b o t h host cells c a n n o t be entirely e l i m i n a t e d in o u r present studies. H o w e v e r , the finding t h a t the host cell-free rickettsiae h a r v e s t e d from the c u l t u r e m e d i u m are p h a g o c y t i z e d a n d escaped into the c y t o p l a s m ( d a t a not shown) suggests t h a t the direct fusion o f the B H K - 2 1 cell p l a s m a m e m b r a n e w i t h the P M N is not an o b l i g a t o r y m e c h a n i s m o f rickettsial entry. O n c e in the host cell c y t o p l a s m , the preferential localization o f rickettsiae in the glycogenrich areas o f the P M N is conspicuous, b u t how t h e y seek these areas is not clear. S o m e i n d i c a t i o n o f the l i m i t e d rickettsial m o b i l i t y in the host cell c y t o p l a s m has been d e m o n s t r a t e d b y t i m e - l a p s e c i n e m a t o g r a p h y (10) a n d it is possible t h a t rickettsiae m a y be a b l e to m o v e to these sites. T h e escape o f a p a r t i c u l a r rickettsiae from a p h a g o s o m e occurs soon after p h a g o cytosis e i t h e r before or after fusion with lysosomes, if escape is to occur at all. A m o n g P M N w h i c h c o n t a i n e d n u m e r o u s rickettsiae, a b o u t o n e - h a l f h a d a l r e a d y escaped into the c y t o p l a s m w i t h i n 30 min, w h i c h was the earliest t i m e p e r i o d studied. Because p h a g o s o m e s are formed from the p l a s m a m e m b r a n e , the selective b r e a k a g e o f p h a g o s o m a l m e m b r a n e s b y rickettsiae is puzzling. However, it has recently been shown (11, 12) t h a t the P M N p h a g o s o m a l m e m b r a n e has different i m m u n o l a b e l i n g characteristics from t h a t o f the p l a s m a m e m b r a n e . T h e p h a g o c y t i z e d rickettsiae m a y be a b l e to recognize these characteristics or be c a p a b l e of i n d u c i n g further changes w h i c h allow t h e m to escape from phagosomes. T h e P M N does not seem to be an effective host cell for R. tsutsugamushi, even t h o u g h they m a y reside in the c y t o p l a s m , because the average half-life of leukocytes in b l o o d is only 6 h a n d l i m i t e d to 1-2 d in h u m a n tissues (13). Because the g e n e r a t i o n time of rickettsiae has been d e t e r m i n e d to be a b o u t 9 h for R. prowazeki (1), there seems to be i n a d e q u a t e t i m e for significant proliferation o f rickettsiae in these phagocytes, t h o u g h some u n d e r g o i n g division were observed. F u r t h e r m o r e , there is a consistent loss of v i a b l e rickettsiae as they are p h a g o c y t i z e d , because only a b o u t o n e - h a l f of these m a n a g e to escape into the cytoplasm. A s s u m i n g t h a t u p o n d e a t h a n d d i s r u p t i o n o f the P M N the rickettsiae are i m m e d i a t e l y p h a g o c y t i z e d b y a n o t h e r P M N , the n u m b e r of viable a p p e a r i n g rickettsiae w o u l d be r e d u c e d to o n e - h a l f o f the original p o p u l a t i o n at each cycle. T h i s process o f phagocytosis a n d escape o f rickettsiae into the c y t o p l a s m a p p e a r s to shorten the life span o f P M N because m a n y o f these cells are d i s r u p t e d when heavily infected. T h e efficacy o f P M N as effective u l t i m a t e host cells m a y be very limited, b u t they m a y p l a y a positive role in rickettsial infection. P o l y m o r p h o n u c l e a r leukocytes h a r b o r i n g rickettsiae m a y serve as t e m p o r a r y reservoirs a n d b y their m o b i l i t y transfer the viable m i c r o o r g a n i s m s to o t h e r sites a n d infect host ceils w i t h longer life spans a n d result in a typical rickettsial infection.
FIc. 1. Part of a guinea pig peritoneal polymorphonuclear leukocyte illustrating rickettsial uptake after incubation with BHK-21 cells heavily infected with R. tsutsugamushi. The rickettsia in the tightly fitting phagosome at the upper left is localized in a filament-rich area near the plasma membrane. Three rickettsiae near the lower right are located directly in the host cell cytoplasm in glycogen-rich areas. Note that the glycogen is present in pools or areas devoid of other cytoplasmic organelles. Numerous lysosomes are present as well as part of a Golgi complex and a centriole (× 26,000). The circular inset at the upper right shows a rickettsiae within a partially disrupted phagosomal membrane. At the site of the discontinuous membrane (arrowheads) glycogen granules are present between the phagosomal membrane and the rickettsiae (X 60,000). The inset at the lower left is an enlarged view of a rickettsia in a glycogen-rich area. Note the intimate association of the glycogen granules to the outer membrane of the rickettsiae (X 60,000).
RIKIHISA AND ITO
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Rickettsia tsutsugamushi (Gilliam strain) was serially propagated in BHK-21 cell cultures and incubated with guinea pig peritoneal p o l y m o r p h o n u c l e a r leukocytes to study the ultrastructural features of rickettsial uptake and entry into the leukocytes. Significant n u m b e r s of rickettsiae were phagocytized selectively by these leukocytes within 30 min. About one-half of these rickettsiae remained sequestered in phagosomes but the other one-half were free from the phagosome and localized directly in the p o l y m o r p h o n u c l e a r leukocyte cytoplasm. Various stages of rickettsial release from the phagosomes were observed. O n c e free within the p o l y m o r p h o n u c l e a r leukocyte cytoplasm, the rickettsiae were preferentially localized in the glycogen-packed areas which are devoid of lysosomes and other cytoplasmic organelles. This study indicates that rickettsiae phagocytized by p o l y m o r p h o n u c l e a r leukocytes can escape from the phagosome into the cytoplasm. Receivedfor publication 9 May 1979.
7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13.
References Wisseman, C. L., and A. D. Waddell. 1975. In vitro studies on Rickettsia-host cell interactions: intracellular growth cycle of virulent and attenuated Rickettsia prowazeki in chicken embryo cells in slide chamber culture. Infect. Immun. 11:1391. Wisseman, C. L., E. A. Edlinger, A. D. Waddell, and M. R. Jones. 1976. Infection cycle of Rickettsia rickettsii in chicken embryo and L-929 cells in culture. Infect. Immun. 14:1052. Andrese, A. P., and C. L. Wisseman. 1971. In vitro interactions between human peripheral macrophages and Rickettsia mooseri. Annual Proceedings of the Electron Microscopy Society of America. 29:39. (Abstr.) Ewing, E. P.,Jr., A. Takeuchi, A. Shirai, andJ. V. Osterman. 1978. Experimental infection of mouse peritoneal mesothelium with scrub typhus rickettsiae: an ultrastructural study. Infect. Immun. 19:1068. Bovarnick, M. R., J. C. Miller, and J. C. Snyder. 1950. The influence of certain salts, amino acids, sugars and proteins on the stability of rickettsiae. J. Bacteriol. 59:509. Sbarra, A. J., and M. L. Karnovsky. 1959. The biochemical basis of phagocytosis. I. Metabolic changes during the ingestion of particles by polymorphonuclear leukocytes. J. Biol. Chem. 234:1355. ho, S., and M. J. Karnovsky. 1968. Formaldehyde-glutaraldehyde fixatives containing trinitro compounds.J. Cell Biol. 34:168a. (Abstr.) Karnovsky, M. J. 1971. use of ferrocyanide-reduced osmium tetroxide in electron microscopy.J. Cell Biol. 51:146a. (Abstr.) Luft, J. H. 1973. Embedding media--old and new. In Advanced Techniques in Biological Electron Microscopy. J. K. Koehler, editor. Springer-Verlag, New York, Inc., New York. 1. Kokorin, I. N. 1968. R. conori in guinea pig kidney cells. Acta Virol. (Prague) (Engt. Ed.). 12: 31. Rikihisa, Y., and D. Mizuno. 1977. Binding of markers of either side of plasma membranes to the cytoplasmic side of paraffin oil-loaded phagolysosomes. Exp. Cell Res. 110:93. Rikihisa, Y., and D. Mizuno. 1978. Different arrangements of phagolysosome membranes which depend upon the particles phagocytized. Exp. Cell Res. 111:437. Bainton, D. F., J. L. Ullyot, and M. G. Farquhar. 1971. The development of neutrophilic polymorphonuclear leukocytes in human bone marrow.J. Exp. Med. 134:907.