Hindawi Publishing Corporation BioMed Research International Volume 2015, Article ID 652474, 8 pages http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/652474
Research Article Production of Human Endothelial Cells Free from Soluble Xenogeneic Antigens for Bioartificial Small Diameter Vascular Graft Endothelization Juliana Lott de Carvalho, Alessandra Zonari, Ana Cláudia Chagas de Paula, Thaís Maria da Mata Martins, Dawidson Assis Gomes, and Alfredo Miranda Goes Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Immunology, Department of Biochemistry and Immunology, Institute of Biological Sciences, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil Correspondence should be addressed to Juliana Lott de Carvalho; [email protected]
Received 19 November 2014; Accepted 29 January 2015 Academic Editor: Francesco Moccia Copyright © 2015 Juliana Lott de Carvalho et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Arterial bypass graft implantation remains the primary therapy for patients with advanced cardiovascular disease, but most lack adequate saphenous vein or other conduits for bypass procedures and would benefit from a bioartificial conduit. This study aimed to produce human endothelial cells (hECs) in large scale, free from xenogeneic antigens, to develop a small diameter, compatible vessel for potential use as a vascular graft. Human adipose-derived stromal cells (hASCs) were isolated, cultured, and differentiated in the presence of human serum and used for the reendothelization of a decellularized rat aorta. hASC derived ECs (hASC-ECs) expressed VEGFR2, vWf and CD31 endothelial cell markers, the latter in higher levels than hASCs and HUVECs, and were shown to be functional. Decellularization protocol yielded aortas devoid of cell nuclei, with preserved structure, including a preserved basement membrane. When seeded with hASC-ECs, the decellularized aorta was completely reendothelized, and the hASC-ECs maintained their phenotype in this new condition. hASCs can be differentiated into functional hECs without the use of animal supplements and are capable of reendothelizing a decellularized rat aorta while maintaining their phenotype. The preservation of the basement membrane following decellularization supported the complete reendothelization of the scaffold with no cell migration towards other layers. This approach is potentially useful for rapid obtention of compatible, xenogeneic-free conduit.
1. Introduction Approximately one-third of the 500.000 coronary bypass patients operated on in the USA every year  lack sufficient or healthy autologous tissue for vascular grafting . Such patients then rely on synthetic grafts, which are a useful alternative to fill such gap, since they present favorable patency properties . Currently, though, these grafts suffer from high thrombogenicity rates for small diameter vessels (