Short 6. C. A. Winter


c‘. C‘. Portar.

J. Am. phrm.

communications Ass.


12. G. Coppi

46, 515 (1957). S. R. Naik. S. G. Kalyanpur

and G. Bonardi,

J. Pharm.





and U. K. Sheth, Biochem. ~~~~r~~~~. 21, 5 11 (197’1. W. C Schneider. J. hioi. Claim. 164, 747 (1946).

13. K. Tanaka and Y. Izuka, Biochem. Pharmac. 17, 2023 (1968). 14. E. Kulonen and Polita Marita, B~oc~7e~. P~?~r~uc. 24,

K. Burton. Biociwm. J. 62, ?I 5 (19%). W. Mgbaum. Noppc~-Sc,!,lrr’\ %. phyriol. Chem. 258, 117 (193% S. R. Naik. Pl1.l). Tl~rsr.s. lrniversity of Bombay (1973). G. Coppl and G. Bonardr. J. Phurm. Pllwrmar. 20. 661 fi9hX).

219 (19751. 15. E. Kuionen and Polila 1671 (1975).


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%llldI pr,tcin l1i”Ok

,l’W 2 oii.

/ 42 i ,,ckl


The reduction of ferricytochrome c was measured according to Williams and Kamin. In NADPH NBT reductase. 15 PM NBT was added instead of ferricytochrome C. The assay medium (I .6 ml) contained X0 pg microsomal proteins. Non tizymatic reductase activities were measured wit!i samples of boiled microsomal fraction. For measurement of 0; dependent reductase activity. IO ~1 of superoxide dismutase (0.6 mgjml in Krebs phosphate buffer) were added. Reduction rate of cytochrome c was followed at 550nm using a mdhmolar extinction coefficient of IX.5 mM ’ cm-’ (for NBT, at 600nm. was 21 5 mM ‘cm- I). Oxygen uptake was measured by polarography in a cylindrical glass chamber: vol. 1.6 ml, temp. 37 Assay medium was composed of Krebs phosphate buffer pH 7.4 containing NADPH I.25 mM and microsomal proteins 40 pg. NADPH oxidation and aniline hydroxylation were measured in the same experimental conditions as oxygen uptake. For 0; production. 10~1 of superoxide dismutase prepared as described above were added during the reaction. Reaction was initiated by the addition of NADPH and all oxygen uptake were linear with respect to the incubation time. 0; produced was calculated from the differences between 0, uptake in the presence or absence of SOD x 2 (see Methods). It is to be noted that an NADPH generating system was used for measurements of 0, dependent cytochrome c and NBT reduction explaining the high levels of Oi measured. All data are the mean. i I standard deviatior , of six independent experiments involving different animals. P values represent comparison by unpaired f-test.

production from control and phenobarbital treated rats. It was found that SOD mhibrted approximately one fourth of the cytochromc C’(or NBT) reduced and of the oxygen uptake in the liver microsomal fraction of control rats. The inhibition of NBT reduction is in agreement with the results reported by Mishin cr ~1. [24]. However. thcsc authors did not observe an inhibition of cytochromc c reduction. This discrepancy may be due to the larger amount of cytochrome c that these authors used in their incubation medium. Decreasing cytochrome c from IS to IOpM in the incubation medium Increased its 0; dependent reduction by IO per cent while increasing cytochrome c (30pM) decreased by 90 per cent its 07 dependent reduction. Thus. the results reported do not strictly correspond to 0~ produced, since what is actually measured is 0~ dependent cytochrome c reduction (or NBT reduction), and it is likely that some portion of the OF generated in the reaction mixture is not being detected. SOD inactivated by boiling (or albumin instead of SOD) had no mhibiting effect. Partial blocking by SOD of cytochrome c and NBT reduction indicates that both these electron acceptors are reduced by liver microsomal fractions in two ways: (a) a reductase 0~ -Independent pathway (SOD exercises no effect) and (b) and OF-dependent pathway (inhibited by SOD). Partial apparent inhibition of oxygen uptake indicates that a fraction of the 0, uptaken was transformed into 0;. As expected. phenobarbital treatment increased cytochrome P-450. NADPH oxidation activity, aniline hydroxylase activity. and the ability of liver microsomes to reduce cytochrome c (or NBT). However, the 0; dependent reduction of cytochrome c (or NBT) was not

enhanced, and indicates that chrome c (or and not of the

only the Oi independent activity was. This phenobarbital induces an increase of cytoNBT) reductase (07 independent) activity Oi production when one q/these rxogenous &c.tror~ acceptors is present in the medium. This suggests that the protein with cytochrome c reductase 0: independent activity. does not catalyse the production of 0; directly from NADPH and 0,. On the contrary. when 0: production was measured in the absence of exogenous electron acceptors (polarographic method). it was observed that phenobarbital treatment enhanced 0; production nearly twice as much as O2 consumption: approximately all the increase of O2 taken up was reduced into 0;. Neither aniline hydroxylase activity. nor NADPH oxidation activity were modified in control and treated rats when 6, IO. 20 or 5Opg of SOD were added to the incubation medium. This showed that SOD does not modify by itself the reactions of these microsomal enzymes. Sasame et al. reported, in a recent abstract. that after the cytochrome b5 antiserum inhibits the introduction of the second electron, the oxygenated cytochrome P-450 complex dissociates to form oxidized cytochrome P-450 and 0; [ZS]. It is also well known that 0, consumption is an index of the reaction rate between P-450 ferrous form and oxygen 1261. Thus. the latter results suggest that the extra electron flux produced by the increase Oi-independent activity of cytochromc c reductase reduces the cytochrome P-450 with further involvement of the oxygenated form of cytochrome P-450 in the generation of 0~. This extra electron flux towards cytochrome P-450 was probably scavenged by cytochrome c (or NBT) when it was in the incubation medium. No increase in


Short communications Table


2. In vitro effect of coumarin

and anilin


on oxygen consumption microsomes




and superoxide



by rat liver


*The percentages of the 0; dependent activity are within brackets. Oxygen consumption and superoxide production were measured as indicated in Table I. The assay medium made up as described in Table I contained coumarin 6.25 mM or aniline 6.25 mM dissolved mto absolute ethanol. Quantities of oxygen consumption are corrected for microsomal ethanol oxidizing system and all results arc corrected for non enzymatic activities. All data are the mean of six different experiments. * The uercentanes of the 0; oroduced from 0, are within brackets. by unpaired t S represents la P value

Superoxide anion production by liver microsomes from phenobarbital treated rat.

Short 6. C. A. Winter and c‘. C‘. Portar. J. Am. phrm. communications Ass. 355 12. G. Coppi 46, 515 (1957). S. R. Naik. S. G. Kalyanpur and G...
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