Mycorrhiza DOI 10.1007/s00572-014-0601-8

ORIGINAL PAPER

Variation among matsutake ectomycorrhizae in four clones of Pinus sylvestris Lu-Min Vaario & Jinrong Lu & Arto Koistinen & Arja Tervahauta & Tuija Aronen

Received: 19 May 2014 / Accepted: 20 August 2014 # Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Abstract Tricholoma matsutake is an ectomycorrhizal fungus that forms commercially important mushrooms in coniferous forests. In this study, we explored the ability of T. matsutake to form mycorrhizae with Pinus sylvestris by inoculating emblings produced through somatic embryogenesis (SE) in an aseptic culture system. Two months after inoculation, clones with less phenolic compounds in the tissue culture phase formed mycorrhizae with T. matsutake, while clones containing more phenols did not. Effects of inoculation on embling growth varied among clones; two of the four tested showed a significant increase in biomass and two had a significant increase in root density. In addition, results suggest that clones forming well-developed mycorrhizae absorbed more Al, Fe, Na, P, and Zn after 8 weeks of inoculation. This study illustrates the value of SE materials in experimental work concerning T. matsutake as well as the role played by phenolic compounds in host plant response to infection by mycorrhizal fungi.

Keywords Mycorrhization . Pinus sylvestris . Phenols . Somatic plants . Tricholoma matsutake L.0.05).

Effects of matsutake inoculation and clone on embling growth in vitro After 8 weeks of incubation, clone had a significant effect on shoot height, biomass, and root density under the conditions of both inoculations and noninoculation (p < 0.05). The emblings of clones 518 were significantly taller than other clones under all conditions, except for clone 1818 inoculated by JA isolate (Fig. 4a). However, the significant difference of biomass among the tested clones was only observed under inoculation by the EF isolate (Fig. 4b). The root densities of clone 1818 emblings were significantly higher than the clones which contain higher phenolic contents (C_888 and C_1076) under inoculation condition, but not in noninoculation condition (Fig. 4c). This result was consistent with the visual observations that clone 1818 grew relatively well during the test period, but three emblings of clone 888 and two emblings of clone 1076 did not grow at all, and their needles turned necrotic. Comparing with inoculation and noninoculation, shoot heights were, on average, 1.3–2.1 cm in inoculated emblings and 0.9–2.0 cm in control emblings. Biomasses were, on average, 26–52.1 mg in inoculated emblings and 12.8–41.3 mg in control emblings; root densities were 1.5–5.9 root tips per embling in inoculated emblings (6.7–44.2 root tips within 4.3–13.5-cm root length) and 0.8–5.0 root tips per embling in the control emblings (4.4–35.3 root tips within

Ratio of trace elements in inoculated and control emblings Two trace elements, Cd and Pb, were not detected in control emblings, but a limited Cd (0.22–0.42 mg kg−1 DW) and Pb (3.15–3.67 mg kg−1 DW) were found in inoculated emblings. The ratio of Al, Fe, Na, P, and Zn trace elements in inoculated and control emblings was significantly higher in clone 518 than clone 1818, and the ratio of Cr was significantly higher in 1818 than 518 based on differences based on the margin of +2 and −2 times the standard error in 95 % confidence limits (Fig. 6).

Discussion This study is among the first to study mycorrhization between P. sylvestris and T. matsutake with genetically uniform plant materials. Our results suggest the following: (1) T. matsutake can develop typical ectomycorrhizae with somatic emblings of P. sylvestris; (2) variation in mycorrhizal formation existed among the four clones tested; the concentration of total phenolics in cultured plant tissues may explain the variation observed in the

Mycorrhiza Fig. 4 Growth effects of P. sylvestris emblings after 8 weeks of inoculation of T. matsutake compared to uninoculated emblings: a shoot heights, b dry weights, and c root density. Common letter indicates nonsignificant difference among four tested clone (p

Variation among matsutake ectomycorrhizae in four clones of Pinus sylvestris.

Tricholoma matsutake is an ectomycorrhizal fungus that forms commercially important mushrooms in coniferous forests. In this study, we explored the ab...
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